THE
ART of DANCING
EXPLAIN'D.


BOOK THE FIRST.


CHAP. I.
Of STANDING.

BEfore I proceed to treat on Motion, I apprehend it to be necessary to consider that Grace and Air so highly requisite in our Position, when we stand in Company; for, having formed a true Notion of this, there remains nothing farther to be observed, when we enter upon the Stage of Life, either in Walking or Dancing, than to preserve the same.

And, for the better understanding of this important Point, let us imagine ourselves, as so many living Pictures drawn by the most excellent Masters, exquisitely designed to afford the utmost Pleasure to the Beholders: And, indeed, we ought to set our Bodies in such a Disposition, when we stand in Conversation, that, were our Actions or Postures delineated, they might bear the strictest Examination of the most critical Judges.

Let us, therefore, to draw nearer to the Subject in hand, inquire into the Nature of those Positions that must be observed, in order to attain this fine and becoming Presence: And that our Readers may be furnished with proper Directions to arrive at the same, tho' perhaps, our Rules may not be so perfect as could have been wished, we flatter ourselves they will be of no small Use and Advantage; wherefore, without farther Apology, I shall enter upon the Description of Position in general.

Position, then, is the different Placing or Setting our Feet on the Floor, whether in Conversation or Dancing; and those for Conversation, or when we stand in Company, are when the Weight rests as much on one Foot as the other, the Feet being considerably separated or open, the Knees streight, the Hands placed by the Side in a genteel Fall or natural Bend of the Wrists, and being in an agreeable Fashion or Shape about the Joint or Bend of the Hip, with the Head gracefully turning to the Right or Left, which compleats a most Heroic Posture; and, tho' it may be improper, in the Presence of Superiors, among Familiars, it is a bold and graceful Attitude, called the Second Position: Or, when the Heel of the right or left Foot is inclosed or placed, without Weight, before the Ancle of that Foot by which the Poise is supported, the Hands being put between the Folds or Flaps of the Coat, or Waiste-coat, if the Coat is unbuttoned, with a natural and easy Fall of the Arms from the Shoulders, this produces a very modest and agreeable Posture, named the Third Position inclosed||: Or, if the inclosed Foot be moved open from the other, sideways, to the Right or Left, about the Distance of half a Foot, or as far as, in setting it down to the Floor, the Weight of the Body resting on the contrary Foot is not disordered by it, with the Toes handsomely turning out, the Hat under one Arm, and the other in some agreeable Action, the Head also turning a little from the Foot on which the Poise rests, this we stile the Fourth Position open, and it may be very justly esteemed a most genteel and becoming Posture *.

The Positions, from which Dancing dates its Original, consist of five Principles: As, first, when the Toes turning outwards, the two Heels are equally placed together (a). Secondly, when both Heels are considerably separated or open(b). Thirdly, when the Poise rests upon one Foot, the other being inclosed or placed before the Ancle of that Foot by which the Weight is supported(c). Fourthly, when the inclosed Foot is advanced upon a right Line, about the Length of a Step in Walking(d). And, Fifthly, when the Heel of the advanced Foot is so crossed and placed before the Toe of that Foot on which the Body rests, as that the Turning may be made, and yet one Foot not, in the least, interrupt the other (e). Having briefly described the most agreeable Postures of Standing in Conversation, and laid down the Rudiments of the whole ART of DANCING, I shall now proceed to treat on Motion, the Result of Position, and first begin with Walking.

 See Plate III.     || See the Feet in Plate IV.

* See Plate VIII.     (a) See Plate II.     (b) See Plate III.     (c) See Plate IV.     (d) See Plate IX.     (e) See Plate XI.

CHAP. II.
Of WALKING.

WALKING consists of Motion and a Change of Place, by transferring the Weight or Poise of the Body from one Foot to the other, by stepping or advancing the disengaged Foot (whichsoever it be) from the first Position to the fourth advanced||, and so alternately, concluding as at first, but always on the contrary Foot. In order to walk gracefully, it is to be observed, that, during the Step or Motion made by the disengaged Foot, as above||, the whole Weight of the Body must rest on the same Foot as at commencing it2, until the stepping Foot is advanced its due Length of Step||2; and, on its receiving the Poise or Weight on the Ball or full Part of the Heel, upon setting it to the Ground or Floor, the now disengaged Foot, which at first supported the Weight, becoming by this means released, attends the Poise in a gentle and easy Motion, until it arrive in its former Position 2; but on the contrary Foot for the Step next ensuing, which is made in like Manner, and so on; for if, instead of the Body's waiting or attending the Motion of the stepping Foot, as above described||2, it should either go before or along with it, the Grace that ought to accompany our Steps, in Walking, is lost, because the Foot must constantly go before the Body||2, to receive it, otherwise it will always represent the Body in a falling Posture.

And it is farther to be noted, that, in Walking with a good Grace, Time and Harmony must be observed, as well as in Dancing: For Example, the setting down or receiving the Poise, at the End of the Step, is upon One; the taking up the disengaged Foot, by a gentle and easy raising the Heel and pointing the Toe, in one intire Motion, which is the Manner of taking up the Foot to step, is upon Three2; and Two is in the coming up of the difengaged Foot, after the Step has been made2, which may be continued faster or slower, but must always be in one certain Time, counting One, Two, and Three, as in Music. And, by this Method, the Body with a good Grace resting or standing, 'till two Thirds of the Three we count, must necessarily add great Beauty to our Walking, which is the Case under Consideration; for the Step is made upon One||2, the Preparation or Taking up the Foot, to make the Step, Three2, and Two is in the coming up of the released Foot, to continue our Walking.

And, as to the Motion of the Arms in Walking, they will naturally have their due Course or Swing, in a continual Contrast or Opposition to the Feet; for, when the right Foot steps forwards(f), the left Arm advances, in Contradiction, as the right Arm does, when the left Foot steps forwards (g), and so alternately; and the like in Walking backwards, in Relation to the Contrast, but not with Respect to the Arms, because, in Walking backwards, the Contradiction is between the same Arm and Foot; for, when the right Foot steps back (h), the right Arm advances in Opposition, as, when the left Foot steps backwards(i), the left Arm advances, as aforesaid, and so on, if continued. Having, I hope, offered what will prove satisfactory, on this Head, I shall next inquire into the different Sorts of Bows and Courtesies in Conversation.

 See Plate I.     || See Plate IX.

2 See Plate I.     ||2 See Plate IX.

(f) See the second Figure or Woman's Side in Plate IX.     (g) See the first Figure in Plate IX.     (h) See the first Figure in Plate IX.     (i) See also the second Figure in Plate IX.

CHAP. III.
Of BOWING, or the different Sorts of HONOURS.

BOWS or Courtesies are the outward Marks of Respect we pay to others, which, in one Sex, are shewed by bowing the Body, but, in the other, by bending the Knees; and, if made in a regular Manner, they are, indeed, very grand, noble, and highly ornamental. They accompany our Conversation, as well in Standing as Walking; in the former, on breaking off a Conversation, as in taking Leave, or by way of Acknowledgment for some Favour or obliging thing spoken in our Praise; and in the latter, when we enter a Room, or meet a Person passing either on the Right or Left. These are the two different Classes or Sorts of Bows and Courtesies, which are, as it were, founded on the two preceding Chapters of Standing and Walking; and, to begin with leaving a Room, which relates to the first of the said Orders, I shall observe, that Taking Leave in Conversation consists in stepping aside, bowing, and leaving the disengaged Foot pointed, sideways, in one intire Motion to the first Division of the Bow or counting of One, during which it remains the Respect or counting of Two; and, in the graceful Raising of the Body upon Three, it is drawn pointed, with the Knees streight 'till it crosses behind the Foot on which the Poise rests, and stands erect on the Foot that it crosses behind||, to be repeated as often as Occasion requires; and it is to be noted, that the Respect, if repeated, is always made to the same Hand; if the Leave be taken to the Right, the Stepping aside is always with the right Foot§, as it is always to the Left, if taken the contrary Way(k).

In Conversation with a Gentleman or Lady standing, the very same Bow is made, as in leaving a Room, the receiving the Poise on the Foot drawn behind excepted||; but, instead thereof, it remains, on Conclusion of the Bow, in the Third Position, upon the Point, without Weight, behind the foremost Foot which here supports the Poise, in readiness to repeat the Respect, if necessary (l), because, in this Bow of Repetition, it always steps first to one Hand, and then to the other, in order to preserve the same Ground; otherwise, if made as leaving a Room(m), it would have the contrary Effect and cause the Persons to retire, instead of resting in the same Place; and it is a very genteel and becoming Bow, if the Stepping aside, Bow, and Point of the disangaged Foot, be made, at once, and a Pause or Counting of Two is observed between the Stepping aside and Bowing, and the graceful Rising up again from thence, in drawing of the pointed Foot up, at the same Time, into the abovementioned Position*, be also in one intire Motion. As to the Reverence or Courtesy of a Lady, on the present Occasion, with Regard to the Feet, it is much the same, but not so, in Relation to the Body; because, as I have already said, the Respect the former shews to any is by bending the Body, but the Courtesy or Respect, which a Lady pays to those of either Sex, is by a graceful Bending of the Knees2, accompanied with a becoming and suitable Disposition of the different Parts of the Body: As, having the Hands before them, in some agreeable Posture supporting, as it were, the slanting or falling Shoulders, which, at the same Time, lengthen and more gracefully expose a fine Neck, as well as a beautiful Face composed of so many delicate and charming Features, with which they are usually adorned by the Bounty of Nature; and, tho' it may be, in some Measure, presumptuous to attempt any Addition to the natural Charms of the Fair Sex, I flatter myself they will forgive me, if I acquaint them, that a modest Look or Direction of the Eye, an agreeable Smile or a lively and pleasant Aspect, with a Chin neither poked out nor curbed in, but the whole Countenance erect and graceful, will add a Lustre to the whole, where any of these are wanting, whether in one Sex or the other; and, together with the easy Situation or Posture of the whole Head, Neck, and Arms, with the handsome Turn of the Feet, they compleat the intire Fashion or agreeable Disposition of a fine accomplished Lady, as well in Conversation in general, as the Courtesy2, or Walking, from its being thus disposed, from Top to Toe, is only to preserve the graceful Position of the Body, as above described.

It only now remains to inquire, whether a Lady steps aside and makes her Honour, in the Manner we have shewn a Gentleman leaves a Room, after stepping aside§2, by drawing the disengaged or pointed Foot2 into the first Position, equal to the Foot, which stepped aside||2, instead of drawing it crossing behind, as aforesaid(n); or that Courtesying, without stepping aside at all||2, as some do, is only to let the Weight or graceful Fashion of the Body, as just described, fall, or rather seat itself, as on a Chair or Stool, without Disorder, upon that Foot which is drawn or crossed behind (n)2, as in leaving Company, or on both Legs equally alike||3, if the pointed Foot be drawn into the first Position||3; and the like, if made on both Legs, without moving from the same Place||3, only with this Difference, in Relation to the Weight's coming upon the pointed Foot 3 or that which is crossed behind (n)2, after touching the Heel of the Foot on which the Poise rests*2, in like Manner as when the Gentleman takes Leave3, and retires back, as it were a Seat for the Weight to rest upon(n)2, whilst the Courtesy or Lady's Respect is paid, upon the Beginning or first Division; whereas, in a Bow for the Man, it does not receive the Weight, 'till the third Division3, resting the Counting of Two for the Respect, as we have observed, in the contrary Sex; and, upon counting of Three or compleating the Courtesy, it rises in the same slow, graceful, and deliberate Manner, 'till it stands upright on the crossing behind Foot**, as at first it seated itself thereon, in the Courtesy or Bending of the Knees3, compleating the Respect or Courtesy, on a Lady's leaving a Room, in the disengaged or foremost Foot's being at Liberty to renew the Respect, as Occasion requires**.

As to which Foot the Stepping aside begins with, in Relation to taking of Leave, it is altogether the same, as was described for the other Sex; but, as this Courtesy or Respect has the like Effect, as I observed, in treating of the Bow in Conversation with another; viz. Retiring from each other, it is to be evaded in rising, by transferring the Poise from the hindmost Foot to the foremost, which, being then at Liberty, is ready to repeat the Complaisance on the contrary Side, and so to preserve the same Ground. And the like may be said, in Relation to concluding the Courtesy on the stepping aside Foot, when the pointed Foot is drawn into the first Position*3; or the like, without stepping at all, by swaying or waving the principal Part of the Body, as Occasion offers, either upon the right (o) or left Foot (p), as will be most to Advantage, in the graceful bending or sinking down upon the Knees||4; which Wave or Sway of the Body not a little contributes to the Beauty of the Courtesy, as does also the handsome Position of the Waiste, neither too much forwards nor backwards, the whole Poise of the Body being beautiful and upright, as before described, directly perpendicular or right down over the Heel or Heels, on which the Poise rests (q); and this, I think, concludes all that is necessary to be said, concerning the Reverence or Courtesy made by Persons of either Sex, according to the first Class, relating to Position or Standing, at leaving a Room, or in Conversation with others.

I now proceed to the Second Sort of HONOURS, viz. those which are introduced by Motion, as in Walking, &c. and I shall, first, finish what concerns the Ladies, before I return to the Gentlemen, who are to observe, that, at the End of the last Step, after their Entrance into a Room, before they pay their Respect or Honour, they are to make a graceful Pause or Stand upon the Foot that made the last Step, which, as has been already said, in Walking, is compleated upon counting of One; so that the whole Person rests the counting of Two, in the coming up of the disengaged Foot into the first Position, equal to the Foot which made the last Step preparatory for the Courtesy (r); and Three is the Rest it makes, when thus joined in the graceful Disposition of the whole Fashion, or upon taking it up, if afterwards stepping aside (s), and thus erect from Head to Foot, it is duly prepared to make the Courtesy in that smooth Manner of bending the Knees we have described, directing the Eye, as Occasion requires; or the like, if the Courtesy be made in stepping aside, as in taking Leave4, for there is no other Difference between the Honour or Respect, on leaving Company and coming up to them, than that, as I have observed, the former proceeds from Position or Standing||5, and the latter is introduced by Motion or Walking§3; but, having shewn, what that Preparation is, there is no Occasion for any farther Enlargement.

If a Lady makes an Honour Passing, either on the Right or Left, or in meeting any One, in Conversation, Walking, or the like, at the End of the Step preceding the Complaisance or Respect, she turns about half way towards the Person, upon Conclusion of the said preparatory Step or Counting of One; and, upon Counting of Two, she lets the disengaged or coming up Foot touch the Heel of that Foot which stepped, crossways, before the said coming up Foot††, which now attends the Poise, in order to make the Honour; and, upon Three, she sets it down, somewhat obliquely or slanting off from the Person to whom the Respect is paid, without Weight**2, and thus becomes duly prepared to make the Courtesy *4; I mean, when the Head is beautifully turned to the Right or Left, according to the Side on which the Respect is made, in a graceful Contrast of the whole Fashion; and, being so disposed, she makes the Honour by a smooth and easy Bending of the Knees. The whole Poise of the Body, during the Counting of One or Bending, as aforesaid, rests the Counting of Two*4, or, as we have already said, the Respect in a fine Contrast; and, upon the third Division or compleating the Courtesy, it rises gracefully from the Foot on which it rested, all the while, in this becoming Twist, passing on, 'till it stands erect upon the Foot which was placed or advanced for that Purpose**2, by transferring the Poise from the Foot that made the preparatory Step for this Respect, which, being now at Liberty, is ready to repeat the same, as often as Occasion requires§4; and from hence it becomes a Kind of Walking Courtesy, changing the Poise from one Foot to the other. And it is to be noted, that it must always be the Foot next the Person, which makes the last Step in Walking, before the Respect: For Instance, if the Person be on the Right, the right Foot makes the Step; and the left, if the Honour be paid to the other Side, turning, as before described, towards the Person or Foot which made the Step in Preparation for the Courtesy, and directing the Eye, sideways, upon the Person to whom the Respect is paid, instead of right forwards, as when entering a Room, or meeting One, which is the only Difference. And it is to be farther observed, that, tho' this Complaisance may be repeated, once or more, after passing a Person, it must never be made, before we come parallel to the Person to whom we pay this Respect; and if Occasion requires its being transferred to the other Side, which often falls out, as when Company are seated or standing, on both Sides of a Room or Gallery, &c. we continue walking on, till we arrive at the next Occasion of paying this Respect, as when Company are scattered, at some Distance, and then make the Pause or Stand, at the End of the Step next the Person or Persons, by turning, &c. as before; or if the Change or Transferring may be soonest performed, as when Company are thick on both Sides, it must be divided by two Steps made between the preceding Courtesies, the second Step preparing to pay the Respect, as I have already shewn, which will be the left Foot, the foregoing Honour being supposed to the Right; and the right Foot, if the Complaisance be first paid to the Left. And, in these Passing Honours, it must be noted, that no Regard is to be observed, with Respect to the Quality of the Person, but only Conveniency, in Relation to the Right or Left, as the Company first present themselves, as we pass along; nor, indeed, can it well be otherwise, because they are all to receive it, in their Turns. As what has been said is all that I apprehend to be material, relating to the Ladies, I flatter myself, that they will not be wanting in putting these Rules into Practice, since I have been at so great Pains in composing them for their Service.

I shall now proceed to the Conclusion of what I have to offer to the Gentlemen, on this Head, which is much to the like Effect with what was observed to the Ladies; for, when a Gentlemen enters a Room, the graceful Stand or Rest he makes, as already described, in the Courtesy for a Lady on this Occasion, must be always made on the last Step before Bowing, which may be on the left Foot; whilst the right, in coming up, as aforesaid, in its Attendance on the Poise, instead of ending in the first Position5, as in Walking, is placed considerably more open, sideways, without Weight, the Heel being somewhat raised, the Ball or Instep pointed or pressing lightly on the Floor, the Knee streight, and the whole Weight of the Body, in a Gentleman-like Manner, resting on the left Foot||6, bows, as Occasion requires, by bending the Body and scraping the open Foot, at the same Time, in one intire Motion forwards; upon the Counting of One**3, remains the respect or Counting of Two, in this respectful Posture, with the Knee on which the Body rests bended, to prevent its being awry, which otherwise would be the Consequence, and the Arms naturally hanging under the Shoulders; and, upon Three, it rises from this humble Posture in one intire slow Motion, 'till it stands erect on the right or scraping Foot; and the left, at the same Time, being released from the Weight of the Body, falls into the first Position, as in Walking *5, to repeat it, if it be necessary.

The Bow Passing differs, in no Respect, from that advancing or coming into a Room, except in the Situation of the Person: For Instance, in entering a Room, the Person is before us, but only upon one Side, on the present Occasion. From hence it appears, that, after the Step preceding the Bow and Pause, placing the contrary Foot or Preparative, is made 6, the Respect is paid in the very same Method, as forwards, only that the Body is turned in a beautiful and agreeable Twist or Contrast, sideways, looking upon the Person to whom we pay the Respect; if the Bow be made upon the Right, the antecedent Step is made with the left Foot, and the right, during the Pause, is placed for the Scrape in Bowing 6; as, if it be made on the contrary Side, the right Foot makes the preparatory Step, and the left will be placed, as aforesaid, to pay the Respect*6; and, if repeated, it will always begin and end with the same Foot, 'till changed by adding a second Step, which transfers the Bow to the other Side, as Occasion offers. This Bow is also made, in walking with a Gentleman or Lady, upon some obliging Expression in Conversation, once or oftener, as Necessity requires, with the right Foot scraping, if the Person be on the Right, but the contrary Foot, if the Person be on the Left. It must also be noted, that the Step made, before placing the Foot for the Bow, is to be made with the contrary Foot to the Side the Person is on, to whom the Respect is paid, and the placed Foot is that next the Person; tho' it is the Reverse in the Ladies, because the Step preparatory for this Respect is made with the Foot next the Person, and the contrary is the placed Foot.

It will not be improper, before I conclude with the Gentlemen, to take some farther Notice of a Difficulty that may arise, in the Application of the Bow Passing; I mean, the Changing or Tranferring it from one Side to the other, because, in passing through a Lane or Room full of Company, we cannot, as I have already observed to the Ladies, bow on both Sides, at once; and therefore the Rule is, to pay this Respect to those that first fall in our Way, and, if possible, conclude on that Side, and then, by walking two Steps or more, to make the like Compliments on the other; which will be, by bowing and scraping the left Foot§5, if the first Respect be paid to the Right, and the contrary Foot, if it be first paid to the Left*7. And if it should fall out, as in St. James's Park, or other publick Places, where you may walk, perhaps, a considerable Way, before you find an Occasion for paying this Respect, you are to note, that these Bows, as we said, in Relation to the Ladies Courtesies, are never made, before you come equal to those you salute; and, if it be a Person of Nobility or extraordinary Fashion, an additional Bow, sideways, as when leaving a Room, may be added, with the contrary Foot to that which made the Scrape, turning full to the Person to whom you pay this uncommon Respect, in passing; nor must you forget, that, in entering a Room, or meeting any one, it is always to be added to the Bow Forwards, as being of singular Use, in paying Respect to the Company in general, as the former is to the Person we salute in particular, by a Cast of our Eye round the Company, omitting none, for an Omission may, many Times, be esteemed an Affront and ill Manners. It will be likewise expedient to observe, that some Ladies make the Passing Honour the very same, as that I have described for the Gentlemen; the only Difference is, that, after placing the Foot7, instead of bowing, in the Scrape of the Foot ||7, they courtesy to the Right **4 or Left ††2, as Occasion requires, in the graceful Contrast described for the other Sex's Bowing, concluding on the scraping Foot||7; which, if on the Right, will be the right Foot §§, and left at Liberty to step and place the preparatory Foot; as, on the contrary Side, it will conclude on the left Foot=, and the right will then be in Readiness to make the Step, and place the Foot, in order to its being repeated, according to the various Occasions before mentioned. Some also use this Method of Courtesying, when they enter a Room, or meet, a Person, which is, in all Respects, agreeable to the Gentleman's Bow, as above described, except in the Scrape or Sliding of the prepared Foot forwards8, viz. to bend both Knees, at the same Time, and to let the Poise fall gracefully upon the hind Foot, during the first and second Divisions; and afterwards the Body rises beautifully, as aforesaid, 'till it stands on the advanced Foot 8, by transferring the Weight from the hind Foot, which, being released, is ready to walk(t), and place the contrary Foot, in order to repeat it, in like Manner, if necessary: Or, if the Courtesy used, at leaving a Room, be added*8, it will then, in all Respects, be answerable to the Gentleman's Bow, at coming into a Room. But in Fine, let the Bow or Courtesy, notwithstanding all the various Methods, and the several Occasions, here described, be made in which of those Forms we please, they cannot fail of being performed to Advantage, but must necessarily produce a good Effect, provided they be made in the Manner already shewn, upon Counting of One*8, the Pause or Rest Two*8, and the Rising upon Three (u). Having, therefore, in this Discourse upon Honours in general, endeavoured to take Notice of every Particular, that might prove useful or instructive, so as to omit nothing material, I flatter myself, that, if it be not, in all Respects, accomplished, according to my Intentions, the Difficulty of the Subject will plead my Excuse; and, as I have, in the preceding Chapters, regularly gone through what I apprehended necessary, upon Standing, Walking, and Honours in general, under the last of which Heads, as the Reader will easily perceive, it was scarce possible to avoid some Repetitions, in my treating distinctly on Bows and Courtesies, I shall now proceed to the various Steps of Dancing.

 See the 2d and 4th Plates in the 2d Book.     || See the 3d Plate in Book the 2d.     § See the 2d Plate in Book the 2d.     (k) See Plate 4 in Book the 2d.     (l) See the Feet in Plate 5.     (m) See Plate 3, Book the 2d.     * See the Feet in Plate 5.

2 See Plates 2d and 4th in Book the 2d.     §2 See Plate the 2d in Book the 2d.     ||2 See Plate the 2d.     (n) See the 4th and 11th Plates.

(n)2 See the 4th and 11th Plates.     ||3 See Plate the 2d.     3 See Plates the 2d and 4th in Book the 2d.     *2 See the Feet in Plate 5.     ** See Plate the 3d in Book the 2d.

*3 See Plate the 2d.     (o) See the 2d Figure or Woman's Side in Plate 1.     (p) See the 1st Figure in Plate 1.     ||4 See the 2d and 4th Plates in the 2d Book.     (q) See Plate 2d in the 2d Book.     (r) See the 1st and 2d Plates.     (s) See Plate 1.

4 See Plates 2d and 4th in Book the 2d.     ||5 See the 4th, 5th and 8th Plates.     §3 See Plate 1.     †† See the Feet in Plate 5.     **2 See the Feet in Plate 10.     *4 See Plates 2d and 4th in Book the 2d.

§4 See Plate 1.

5 See Plate 1.     ||6 See the Feet in the 2d Figure or Woman's Side of Plate 6.     **3 See the Feet of the 2d Figure in Plate 9.     *5 See the 2d Figure in Plate 1.

6 See the Feet of the 2d Figure in Plate 6.     *6 See the Feet of the 1st Figure in Plate 6.

§5 See the Feet of the 1st Figure in Plate 6.     *7 See the Feet of the 1st Figure in Plate 6.     7 See Plate 6.     ||7 See the Feet in Plate 9.     **4 See the Feet of the 2d Figure in Plate 6.     ††2 See the Feet of the 1st Figure in the same Plate.     §§ See the 2d Figure in Plate 9, and 2d of Plate 1.     = See the 1st Figure in Plate 9, and 1st of Plate 1.

8 See the Feet in Plate 9.     (t) See Plate 1.     *8 See Plates the 2d and 4th in Book the 2d.     (u) See Plate 3d in Book the 2d.

CHAP. IV.
Of the DANCING-ROOM.

BEFORE I enter upon the various Steps of Dancing, it will be necessary to describe the Room in which the Dancing or Steps are to be performed; which indeed seems to claim our more immediate Notice, since it will greatly assift us, in forming clear and distinct Notions of the ensuing Work.

First then, you are to observe, that the Shape and Figure of Rooms differ exceedingly; for some are of a direct Square, others not square but oblong or longish, namely, when the two Sides are somewhat longer than the Top or Bottom, and various others that, in Reality, are of no Form at all; which renders Dancing extremely difficult and confused to those, who have not a just and true Idea of the Room, in its different Situations; because, if this be wanting, altho' they may perform very handsomely, at their own Houses, or in School with a Master, yet, in Assemblies or Rooms Abroad, they are as much disordered and at a Stand, as if in an Uninhabited Island. I therefore conclude, that the Crime, if it should by any be esteemed such, of dwelling somewhat longer than I intended on this Subject, will the more easily be pardoned by the Ladies and Gentlemen, when I acquaint them, that it intirely proceeded from the earnest Desire I have of rendering them Service, by endeavouring to remove the above mentioned Causes of Disorder and Confusion; which I cannot but persuade myself will meet with a favourable Reception, especially from the Hands of those who, by this Means, shall receive Improvement.

Encouraged by such a pleasing Prospect, I proceed to inform the Gentlemen and Ladies, that, when they are about to dance in a Room of the first Sort, viz. a direct Square(a), the dance may be begun, at any of the four Sides or Parts of the Square or Room; but then they are to note, that the Side or Part, on which the Dance begins, is always called the Bottom or Lower End(b); the Side or Part which they face, the Presence or Upper End (c); and the two remaining Parts or Sides of the Room receive their Names, according to the Hand they are on: For Instance, the Side, to which the right Shoulder points, is call'd the right Side(d), and the other the left(e); from whence it is to be understood, that the Back is to the Lower End of the Room, and the Face to the Upper, so that, if, instead of Beginning, as aforesaid, you was to commence, either upon the right or left Sides, they would not be then Sides, as before, but the Upper and Lower Ends of the Room; that is to say, if upon the right Side(f) the left would be the Presence or Upper End(g), and if upon the left (h) the right(i), and consequently the Parts or Sides, which at first were the Lower(k) and Upper Ends(l), now are the Sides; but all this is subservient to, and depends upon the Company, who must always be seated at the Presence or Upper End.

As to the longish or second Sort of Rooms, they differ from the Square, in the Sides being longer than the Ends(m); and it of Course follows, that the Dance must begin, at one of the said Ends(n), which is likewise decided by the Company; or, if the Door be hung near the End of one of the Sides, as usually it is, the Dance commonly begins, at the End next the Door(o). However that be, the Dancers must have a particular Regard to the Presence and Bottom of the Room, where they begun, otherwise it is no Wonder that those, who are of a timorous and bashful Nature, with the Fears of being out together with the various Turnings and Windings of some Dances, should be perplex'd and nonpluss'd; and this I have perceived to be the Case, when I have seen a Minuet begun at the Bottom of the Room, and ended at the Upper End; which could not possibly have happened, had they observed the preceding Rules.

I shall, for the more fully Clearing of this Point, add an Observation or two more that may be of Service: Supposing one Page or Leaf of the Book you now read, or any other, to be the Room or Floor in which the Dances or Practise of the Steps contain'd in the following Work are to be perform'd, lay it flat and open upon a Window or Table, at the Upper End of the Room; and if, when the Book is open, the two Pages make a Square, it will be agreeable to the first Room, and the one half or single Page to the longish or second; but you are to take special Notice, as to the Part or End of the Room intended for the Presence, that the Title or Page of the Book be so placed or laid upon the Table or Ground, as that, when you stand at the Bottom facing the Upper Part of the Room, to perform the foresaid Steps or Dances, you can read the said Book: Or, supposing the whole Floor to be the same Book, and to contain the Matter written in the Page or half Page, the Book lying fix'd and immoveable upon the Table or Ground, let the Turn be made to the Right or Left, in a Quarter, Half, or Three-quarter Turn, and you cannot possibly make the least Mistake; for tho' the Book, by which you are directed in Compliance therewith, turns along with you, yet any other you shall lay upon the Ground will remain fix'd; so that from what has been said upon this Head, I think it plainly appears, that the Lower End of the Page or Leaf is the Bottom of the Room, and the Title above the Presence or Upper End; the Beginning of the Lines, as you read these in Dancing, is the left Side, and the Breaking off of the Lines the right(p), tho' the Sides of the Book are not so term'd. The Reason of this may be understood, by placing a Person at the Upper End of the Room facing the Bottom, holding a printed Book or written Paper perpendicular in his Hands, so as that you can read it; for you will find it the Reverse to Dancing, in that the right Hand will hold the Part of the Paper from whence the Lines begin, and the left that where they break off. It is farther to be noted, that, supposing the Dance for one Person alone in the square Room or two Pages of the Book, as just mentioned, the Dancer places him or herself in the Center, or upon the Joining of the two Pages, which, when open, is directly in the Middle(q); or, to practise any Step of this Book, the Case is the same; but, if the Dance be of two, the Lady takes the right Side of the said Center or Line(r), and the Gentleman the left (s), so that the joining or presenting of Hands, if necessary, would fall upon the Line or Center upon which the single Dancer begun(q); in which it is to be noted, as on other Occasions, that the Lady takes the Right of the Gentleman.

And as I have now said what, I hope, will prove sufficient to remove all the Difficulties that may arise, in Dancing, on Account of the Room, or in Relation to the Steps I am about to explain, I shall no longer detain those who are ambitious of attaining to Perfection in a Science, of which I have the Honour of being a Professor; but, having prepared and made them thoroughly acquainted with the Room, in which the Steps of Dancing are to be perform'd, I shall invite them into the same; but, before I describe the various Steps of Dancing, I shall, in a few Words, endeavour to prepare their Minds to form a clearer and more distinct Idea of the following Descriptions.

As the Human Structure is composed of different Parts, viz. Head, Neck, Body, Arms, Legs, Feet, &c. so likewise is Dancing of Positions, Steps, Sinking, Rising, Springing, Capering, Falling, Sliding, Turning, Figures, Cadence or Time, &c. And as the Head consists of Eyes, Ears, Nose, Mouth, &c. the Arms, of the Shoulders, Elbows, Wrists, Hands, Fingers, and Joints of the Fingers, the Body, as it were, remaining in the Center or Middle of the Human Frame, supporting the said Arms, as the Legs, which support them both, are composed of the Hips, Knees, Ancles, Feet, Toes, and Joints  of the said Toes, on the first of which the Rising upon the Instep is always made; and as all these different Parts have their peculiar Excellencies, to adorn the Whole, so the Eyes give Life to the Face, as well as direct the Steps; the Ears mark Time to the Tune; the Nose, as it were, points out the graceful Twists or Turns the Head makes, in Opposition to the other Parts of the Body, whilst the Mouth, at the same Time, adds those becoming Smiles, which, together with the Brightness and Lustre of the Eyes, compleat a most agreeable and pleasing Countenance. The Neck too, in its graceful Compliance with the Turn of the Head; the Shoulders, in their natural Rising, Falling, or Hanging down(v); the Elbows, in their easy Bendings, according to the Occasion(w); the Wrists, in their pliable Correspondence with the Elbows and Shoulders, as the handsome Shaping or Bending of the Thumbs and Fingers produces beautiful Hands compleating the Arms(x); which, in their respective Opposing the Head, in Conjunction with the Body, is a farther and large Addition to the Whole(y); the Legs, in the gracefully supporting the Frame of the Body, Head, Neck, and Arms(z); and the Hips or Joints, which unite the Legs and Body, agree with the various Movements or Bendings and Risings of the Knees or Insteps2, the Positions or handsome Turn of the Feet compleating the Beauty of the Legs, on the neat Management of which the Perfection of Dancing so much depends *; and these together, in Confederacy with the Head, oppose the Body and Arms, rendering the whole Body compleat and capable of Dancing, in all its various Attitudes or Postures**.

Having, by the foregoing Simile or Comparison, given an Account of the outward Form of the Human Structure, so far as it relates to, or corresponds with Dancing, or may, in any Respect, conduce to the better Understanding of the ensuing Subject, by running over the different Parts of the Body, from the Head to the Feet, which compose the Positions, with a short Explanation of the said Parts, shewing how they agree in forming the most pleasing Object, to grace the ART of DANCING††, before I proceed to treat on its various Steps, I shall, by the way, observe, that the foresaid Particulars, from whence the whole BODY or ART of DANCING is produced, namely, Position, Sinking, Stepping, Rising, Springing, &c. are of the very same Use, in Dancing, as the Alphabet, in the Composition of Words; for as Words vary and are produced, according to the different placing of the Letters; and different Subjects, Languages, &c. according to the different Composition of Words; or, as in Music, by the different placing of the Notes, that compose the Gamut upon the Scale or Spaces between the Lines, are produced different Sounds, which, as they ascend or descend, compose various Bars or Measures, that may be compared to Words, and the various Bars and Measures compose the various Pieces of Music, in different Keys and Movements; so the different Steps of Dancing are produced, according to the various Placings of the Sinks, Risings, Bounds, &c. upon the Step, whether consisting of one, two, three or more Steps to the Measure, and the different Steps produce Variety of Dances, according to the Composer's Fancy, upon all Sorts of Movements in Music, whether grave or brisk.

We are, next, to shew, how these Actions or Motions of the Body, which, as we said above, compose the whole ART of DANCING, correspond with the Positions and various Motions and Steppings of the Feet, in composing the following Steps and Movements; and the Manner, in which they are made, will fully appear from the Description I am about to give of the said Steps, beginning with the HALF COUPEE, the Movement that first occurs in Dancing.

(a) See the Square or Room, marked 1, in the 1st Plate distinguish'd by the Letter A.     (b) See the Letters A B in the said Square.     (c) See the Letters C D.     (d) See the Letters E F.     (e) See the Letters G H.     (f) See the Letters A B in the Square mark'd 2.     (g) See the Letters C D in the said Square.     (h) See the Letters A B in the Room or Square marked 3.     (i) See the Letters C D in the said Square.     (k) See the Letters A B in the Square marked 1.     (l) See the Letters C D in the same Square.     (m) See the Letters E F G H in the Rooms marked 4, 5, 6.     (n) See the Letters A B in the Rooms marked 4, 5, 6.

(o) See the following Mark + in the Rooms aforesaid.

(p) See the 7th Example of the Book in the Plate of the Room.     (q) See the Letter S in the said 7th Example.     (r) See the Letter W in the Example aforesaid.     (s) See the Letter M in the before mentioned Example.

 See the Figure in Plate III.     (v) See the different Parts, as above described, in the Ladies Figures contained in the 2d Book.     (w) See the Figures in Plate 10.     (x) See the Parts above mentioned in the Arms and Fingers contained in Plate 13.

(y) See the Turn of the Head, Body, and Arms, of the Figures in Plate 6, or in the 4th, 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 12th, and 14th Plates.     (z) See the Figures contained in the 3d, 6th, and 8th Plates.     2 See the Figures in the 3d and 10th Plates.     * See the Feet of the Figures in general.     ** See the Figures in the 4th, 6th, 9th, 11th, 12th, and 14th Plates.     †† See the Figures in Plate 13, &c.

CHAP. V.
Of the COUPEE of one Step, or HALF COUPEE.

IT is, first of all, to be observed, that the Half Coupee, tho' a very agreeable Step in Dancing, as well as one of the most difficult to be performed well, by Reason of its Plainness, is originally nothing more than a single Step, made with either Foot, from one Place to another with the additional Ornament of a Movement or Bending or Rising of the Knees in Time to Music; and it is most amiable, when executed in that gentle and graceful Manner it ought to be, whether upon the Toe or Heel.

The Half Coupee may be perform'd various Ways, as by Sinking, Rising, and Stepping forwards; and the like backwards, sideways, to either Hand, or in turning a quarter or half Turn (a), &c. It usually takes up a Time or Measure of the Tune, and, being continued, transfers the Weight, as in Walking, from one Foot to the other; and, in Distinction from the rest, the Dancing-Masters have named it a Half Coupee, tho' I think it may rather be called a Coupee of one Step, as the Title above specifies: But, as I shall have Occasion to give a farther Account of this Step, when, in treating of the Bouree or Fleuret, I carry on a Comparison between the Step and the Half Coupee, I shall, in the mean Time, proceed to the Coupee, the Movement that next occurs in Dancing.

(a) See the Explanation and Table of this Step in the Plate mark'd E.

CHAP. VI.
Of the COUPEE.

THE COUPEE, on the other Hand, is a compound Step; that is to say, it is formed of two Steps joined together, which, however, are to be accounted but as a single Step: The first Movement of which begins in a Sink and Rise. If the Tune, to which it is perform'd, be of triple Time (as a Saraband, for Instance, which admits only of three Notes in a Bar) then the first Step takes up one of the three Notes, and the other two Notes are counted in the remaining Step. The Weight of the Body must always rest on the contrary Foot to that, on which you begin; so that, if you begin your Coupee with the right Foot, the Poise must be on the left, and continue so to be, 'till you have compleated the first Step of the two, which, as I said, compose the Coupee. The first Part being finished, the right Foot immediately receives the Weight,* in the rising from the Sink which is made, at commencing the Step, and in the same Instant beats Time, as we call it, to the first of the three Notes contained in the Bar; supporting the Body ||, whilst the left Foot, to compleat this compound Step, slides with a slow and gentle Motion, filling up the remaining two Notes of the Bar or Measure**, and the whole Step is compleated, at the Instant when the left Foot a second time receives the Weight††. This Step, like the Half Coupee, admits of being variously performed as forwards, backwards, sideways, and circularly (b). It differs, indeed, from the Half Coupee, in the Continuance of performing it; for whereas the Half Coupee, as in Walking, transfers the Weight, every Time, from one Foot to the other, the Coupee does the very Reverse, in that it always begins with the same Foot: For, if you begin it with the left Foot, it will end with the right; and, if with the right, it concludes on the left (c); and so mutually, as often as ever it is repeated, and until it is changed by some other Step. It is called a Coupee, from its containing two Steps instead of one, which is all that the Half Coupee employs.

 See the 1st Figure or Man's Side of Plate I.     * See the second Figure or Woman's Side in Plate 9.     || See the 2d Figure or Woman's Side of Plate I.     ** See the 1st Figure or Man's Side in Plate 9.     †† See the 1st Figure of Plate I.

(b) See the Explanation and Table of the Coupee in the Plate mark'd with the Letter E.     (c) See the Table and Explanation, as aforesaid, of the Plate of Tables mark'd E.

CHAP. VII.
Of the COUPEE with two Movements.

THE Coupee with two Movements is composed, as the Coupee I have already explain'd, of two Steps; but it differs in this, that whereas the Coupee treated of before consists only of one Movement, that is to say, of one Sink and Rise, which is what we call Movement, and made to the first Step; so it consequently follows, that there must be another Movement added to the second, tho' different from the first; for in that the Sink is made, before the Foot moves; and the Rise, after the Foot has moved, that is to say, when you have made a Step, as I have already observed, as in walking either forwards, backwards, or sideways, &c. but, in this additional Movement, the Sink and Rise are together in the Midst of the Motion the Leg makes, in stepping, as in the preceding; and supposing the Step is to a Louvre, or such like slow Air, it is performed in the Manner following, viz. to make the first Step which is to sink, before the Foot moves, and rise in moving, or immediately after it has moved||; which said Rising and Receiving of the Weight upon the Foot, that made the first Step, marks Time to the first Note of the three, which each Bar or Measure contains. The second Note is taken up with the Sink of the second Movement; and the Rise from it takes up the third Note of the same Measure, and compleats the Step; so that the first Movement and Step are made to the first Note of the three, and the second to the remaining two, and may be performed the different Ways aforesaid, as forwards, backwards, sideways before, or sideways behind, &c.(d) and, as to its Continuance in Dancing, it is the same as the Coupee of one Movement, that is, always beginning with the same Foot, whether right or left: It is named a Coupee of two Movements, from its having the Addition of a second added to the former; which second Movement is made sometimes smooth upon the Floor, and sometimes by bounding off.

 See Plate 1.     || See Plate 9.     (d) See the Explanation and Table of this Step in he Plate mark'd E.

CHAP. VIII.
Of the BOUREE-STEP or FLEURET.

THE Bouree is composed of three plain streight Steps or Walks, except the first, which begins in a Movement, and is to be performed in the same Method, as the Half Coupee, or Coupee with two Movements, that is to say, must always sink, at the Beginning of the Step or Walk, and rise at, or gradually before the End of it; which is the Manner in which the first Step is usually taken, in the Performance of all Steps, except Springs, Bounds, Hops, or Chassees, &c. wherefore, for the Future, I need not say any more of the Method of beginning these Sorts of Steps, in Dancing, otherwise than to make a Movement, without mentioning how the Sink and Rise are to be made, since they have been already explained.

A Bouree or Fleuret, as I have observed, consists only of three plain streight Steps; but a Movement is added to the first of them, the Rise of which Movement, as has been said, always strikes the Cadence or Time; and, if this Step is done to a Tune of three Notes in a Measure, the first Step answers to the first Note, the second Step to the same Note, and the third Step to the last Note of the Measure, concluding together.

You are also to note, that tho' in the Bouree there are three distinct Walks or Steps, yet nevertheless, these three Steps are to be esteem'd but as one Step, in Regard of its being a composed Step; as will appear by the Half Coupee, which, tho' no more than a single Step, is, however, a Step, because it generally takes up a Measure, but more especially in Tunes of triple Time; and it is made by a smooth and easy Bending of the Knees, rising in a slow and gentle Motion from thence; which Rising, as I have said, is upon the first Note of the Measure, the Weight of the Body being supported by the Foot that made the Step, during the Counting of the second and third Notes of the Bar.

The graceful Posture of the Dancer's Standing adds not a little to the Beauty of this Step, who, 'till the Time be expired, is to wait or rest; by which it is evident, that the Half Coupee, tho' a single Step, is equal, in Value, to any compound Step whatsoever, whether of two, three, four, or more Steps in a Measure.

But to return, the Bouree-Step may be perform'd various Ways, as forwards, backwards, sideways, crossing before, the same behind, before and behind, behind and before, &c (e), the Explanation of which, I think, may not be improper, in this Place; and therefore I shall proceed to shew the Method of their Performance, one after the other, in the Order above set down, except the Fleurets forwards and backwards; which being so intelligible of themselves, and having Occasion hereafter to speak of this Step, by way of Grace to the Minuet, instead of saying any thing farther of them here, I shall begin with the Bouree-Step crossing before, sideways; which is to be perform'd, as follows, either with the right or left Foot: For Instance, provided you begin with the Latter, the Weight must be on the right (f); and the left Foot, which is at Liberty, commences by making a Movement and Step, to the right Side of the Room, crossing before the Foot on which the Body rests , the Face being to the Upper Part of the Room, and it receives the Weight ||. The second is the right Foot, which steps the same Way*; and the third and last, which is with the left, crosses before, as at firs, only without a Movement ||. The Bouree crossing behind, sideways, differs from the Former in this, that whereas that was before, this is behind; that is to say, the Weight being, as aforesaid (f), the left Foot, instead of making the Movement and first Step crossing before the right, it now is made crossing behind it; and the next Step, which is with the right Foot, moves the same Way, after which the third and last Step with the left Foot is drawn behind the right, and concludes. The Bouree before and behind is, when the first Movement and Step are made crossing before the Foot on which the Weight is, whether right or left, the second Step moving sideways, the same Way, and the third drawn behind it, facing upwards, as before. The Bouree behind and before is done in the like Manner, only the first Step is not cross'd before but behind, the second stepping sideways, and the third drawn crossing before. The Bouree, which I call twice behind, is made as follows: Suppose, for Example, you make a Movement, stepping backwards with the right Foot (g), into the third Position inclos'd behind the left on which the Weight is, and releasing it (h); upon which it makes the second Step of the Bouree, in a plain Step backwards, receiving the Weight inclos'd in the third Position behind the right (i), which then performs the third Step of the Bouree, in a plain Step forwards2.

There are many other Ways of performing this Step, which would be too tedious to be mention'd here; and, as they are not to my present Purpose, omitting them, I shall only observe, that this Step, continued several Measures, changes the Foot, every Step, as has been taken Notice of in the Half Coupee; but with this Difference, that whereas the Half Coupee changes the Weight, every single Step, as in Walking, the Bouree or Fleuret only changes it, at the End of every third Step.

(e) See the Explanation and Table of the Bouree in the Plate mark'd E.     (f) See the 2d Figure or Woman's Side of Plate I.      See the first Figure in Plate 4, and the 2d Figure or Woman's Side of Plate XI.     || See the first Figure or Man's Side of Plate 5.     * See the 2d Figure in Plate 6.

(g) See the 1st Figure of the 1st Plate.     (h) See the 1st Figure of the 4th Plate.     (i) See the 2d Figure of the 4th Plate.     2 See the 2d Figure in Plate 9.

CHAP. IX.
Of the BOUREE with two Movements.

THE Bouree with two Movements consists of the same Number of Steps, as the former; but as that was of one Movement, this is of two; which second Movement is added to the last of the three Steps of which the Bouree is compos'd. This Step, in Effect, contains in itself two distinct Steps, namely, the Whole and Half Coupee; only it is not the same, in the Manner of its Performance; for they, as was already observed, in treating of them, are both equal to a Measure of themselves, but, in this Step, they are both to be performed to a Time or Measure, and must be accounted only as one Step: For Example, to a Tune of three Notes in a Bar, admiting it begins with the right Foot (k), it is to be likewise granted, that the Weight must be on the left(k), which supports the Body, 'till the first Step and Movement are made*; the Rise of which Step is to the first of the three Notes belonging to the Measure, on which the Weight rests, until the second Step is performed, that answers the same Note and ends the Coupee; whereas the second Step of the Coupee to a Measure takes up the second and third Notes, and consequently is as slow again, in its Performance, as this; which third Note of the Coupee to a Measure is taken up in this Step with the Rise from the Half Coupee, and is the third and last Step on which the second Movement falls*, from whence this Step derives its Name.

From what has been observed we may see, in what this Step differs from the two said Steps before described. In the Continuance of this Step the Weight changes (l), as in the Bouree with one Movement, and may be perform'd forwards, backwards, sideways, circularly, &c. Note, this Step may be done with a Bound, that is to say, on the last Step upon which the second Movement is made, with a Spring from the Ground, which is what we call a Bound; and of this I shall take Occasion to say something in its proper Place, and give it the Name of Bouree with a Bound, as not being made on the Floor, as the Bouree with two Movements.

(k) See the 1st Figure of Plate the first.     * See the 2d Figure in Plate 9.      See the 1st Figure in Plate 9.

(l) See the 2d. Figure in Plate I.

CHAP. X.
Of the PASGRAVE or MARCH.

THE March is originally a single or plain Step, as the Half Coupee, but different in the Manner of its Performance, in that the Half Coupee bends or sinks, before the Step is performed, and rises, after it has been made; whereas, on the contrary, in this Step, the Movement or bending and rising are made together, as in the second Movement of the Coupee with two Movements, after which commences a Slide; and the Sink, Rise, and Slide compose this Step, which, in its Performance, is as follows: For Example, if forwards, the Foot, you design to begin with, is to be intirely disengaged from the Weight behind the Foot on which the Body rests in the third Position, that is to say, the Ancle of the beginning Foot must touch the Heel of the Foot that supports the Weight(m); from which Position this Step always begins and is performed by making a Sink and Rise; but instead of stepping forwards, as in the Half Coupee, you rise and point the right or left Toe, sideways, according to the Foot you commence with, about the Distance from the Foot the Body is upon, as half the Step you take in Walking (n).

After this the Foot moves slowly forwards , pressing the Floor, as it passes along, about the Length of a Step in Walking  which Pressing of the Toe or Instep to the Ground, as it moves , is what we call a Slide in Dancing. And as to its Agreement with the Notes of triple Time, as mentioned before, you are to observe, that the Rise or Point || marks Time to the first Note; the March or sliding forwards of the Foot  takes up the second and third Notes, on the Expiration of which it receives the Weight, concluding in the third Position, as at first, but on the contrary Foot*. This is one of the most agreeable Steps in Dancing; and it may be performed either forwards, backwards, or sideways, &c. and in Performance, when continued, it transfers the Weight from one Foot to another, as in the Half Coupee.

(m) See the 1st and 2d Figures in Plate V.

(n) See the first and second Figures in Plate VI.      See Plate IX.     || See Plate VI.     * See Plate V.

CHAP. XI.
Of the POINT and MARCH.

THE Point and March is so call'd from having a Point more added to the March, which Point is equal, as to its Time, with a March, and in its Performance the same, except that, instead of the second and third Notes being taken up in the marching or sliding of the Foot forwards or backwards  &c. they are counted, during the Time you stand or rest, in the graceful Manner before observed in the Half Coupee; only with this Difference, that the disengaged Foot, instead of being in the first Position, as in that, is upon the Point here, as may be seen by the Beginning or first Movement of the foresaid March ||. The Point is made with either Foot, as has been observed in the March (o), which Point is performed with a soft easy rising from the foregoing Sink2, made to the first Note (o); in which Posture it remains the counting of the second and third Notes of the Measure, concluding what we call the Point (o), the Body all the while resting upon the same Foot as at commencing; after which follows the March ||2; as it has been before described, and the Point (o) and March ||2, generally fill up two Measures of the Tune, tho' sometimes they are both performed to a Measure.

It will not, I think, be here improper to take some Notice, how the Point (o) and March ||2 agree with the Notes of the Measure: For Instance, if you make a Movement and Point, sideways, the Rise of the Point answers to the first Note (o); the Rise of the second Point or Movement, which immediately ensues upon the same Place, on which the first Point was made, marks the second Note(o), and the third is counted in the March or Progress of the Foot, either forwards or backwards from thence ||2; which are two Methods, in which this Step is usually perform'd. But when this Step is perform'd to two Measures of the Tune, the Point (o) and Time you rest upon it, that is to say, the counting of the second and third Notes, whilst you are beautifully standing (o), takes up the first Measure. The second is in the March or Slide ||2, and, if continued, transfers the Weight every other Step, as in the Half Coupee; and in fine, as to the Manner of performing this Step, it is fully shewn in the March, since it is no more than the first Movement, or Sink and Rise thereof, on which Rising and Pointing of the Toe or Instep (o), you pause or rest, until the Measure is expired*.

 See Plate IX.     || See Plate VI.

(o) See the Figures in Plate VI.     2 See Plate V.     ||2 See Plate IX.     * See the Explanation and Table of this Step in the Plate marked E.

CHAP. XII.
Of the SPRING or BOUND.

THE Spring or Bound is produced from a plain and single Step, as the Half Coupee, or March, but it very much differs from them in Performance; for, as they are both made on the Ground, the Bound springs off from thence. For Example, suppose you was about to perform a March, then, instead of sinking and rising on the Floor, you are to sink, and, in the Spring or Rise from the said Sink, throw the Body into the Air, off from the Foot on which the Weight was, when you begun, and light upon the contrary Foot; that is to say, if the Bound is on the right, the Weight is to come from the left (p), where it was upon commencing this Step. And in like Manner, if performed with the left Foot . One Bound alone rarely, if ever, answers to a Measure; but, in Tunes of common Time, or of four in a Measure, as in Rigadoons, Marches, &c. two Bounds answer a Time; and, in Sarabands or slow Tunes of triple Time, three of them may be done in one Bar.

This Step may be performed various Ways, as forwards, backwards, sideways before, or sideways behind, as also in turning either to the right or left, &c. (q). And it is farther to be noted, that the Foot, on which the Bound is to be made, commences from the third Position behind the Foot upon which the Weight rests, as in the March, and advances, much in the same Manner, from the third to the third Position; only that it bounds off from the Ground, and if continued to a Tune of common Time, as above, changes the Weight twice, in every Measure, and in triple thrice.

(p) See the first and second Figures in Plate V.      See the second and first Figures of the foresaid Plate.     (q) See the Explanation and Table of this Step in the Plate marked E.

CHAP. XIII.
Of the CLOSE or JUMP.

WHAT we call a Close in Dancing is, when, the Weight being upon one Foot, we sink, and in the Rise jump or close both Feet equal one to the other, in the first Position (r), or the Feet are inclosed either before or behind, in the third Position ; and this Step generally concludes in the said Positions or Postures. It may be performed two different Ways, viz. on the Ground, and off from the Ground, as in the Bound; but it differs in its Method of Performance, for as that advances forwards or backwards, about the Length of the Half Coupee, or March, this never proceeds farther than from behind the Foot which supports the Body, either to the first Position even, or to the third inclosed before or behind, as aforesaid.

I shall, in the first Place, begin with the Description of the Close in the first Position, which is as follows: For Instance, the Foot that is free from Weight begins whether it be the right or left, in making a Movement, or Sink and Rise from the third Position behind (s), as when you begin the March; that is to say, so far as the Point||; but, instead of pointing the Toe to the Ground as in that here, in rising from the Sink aforesaid, preparing for the Close ensuing, you give a Kind of a Spring upon the Toe or Instep of the Foot the Weight is on, and the same Time or Instant both Heels come to the Floor together, and receive the Weight equal alike (t); but you are to observe, that the Body is thus thrown into the Air by the Spring of the Instep, I mean no higher than you can rise without quitting the Ground with your Instep or Toe, and from hence it is call'd a Close on the Ground.

To close in the third Position is perform'd intirely in the same Manner, except that, in lighting on both Feet in the first Position as before (t), the Fall or coming down is in the third; that is to say, the Feet are inclosed one before the other, the Heel of the foremost Foot touching the Ancle of the hind Foot (u). In the Performance of this Step backwards it is the very same, only, instead of beginning from behind the Foot on which the Weight is, it commences from before the same, or fourth Position open in the Air 2; so that what we have describ'd forwards is to be accomplished backwards in the same Method: For Example to close backwards in the first Position||2, or inclose backwards into the third (u), when this Step is performed off from the Ground, the Difference is only in this, that you sink, in order to spring, as before; but, instead of rising to the Extremity or Point of the Toe you only spring quite off from the Floor, lighting on both Feet in any of the before mentioned Positions, whether forwards or backwards, and it is called a Close or Jump.

You are also to observe, that this Step never advances either forwards, backwards, or sideways, as is usual in others, but is always perform'd upon the same Place; for, altho' the disengaged Foot moves from behind or before that on which you stand, the Weight always comes down in the same Place: For Instance, suppose you was to be in the third Position on the left Foot (v) and to perform this Step to the first Position even from behind, the right Foot is brought equal to that on which the Weight is, the very Instant the Close or Jump is made (w); and, if the Fall or coming down be inclosed in the third Position before the Foot (x), instead of joining even to the Foot on which the Weight is (w), the Heel of the right Foot is inclosed or joined before the Ancle of the left (x), and the same backwards from before.

This Step in Dancing much resembles a Period or full Stop in Letters; for, as that closes or shuts up a Sentence, the Close in Dancing does the very same in Music, since nothing is more frequent than, at the End of a Strain in the Tune, to find the Strain or Couplet of the Dance to conclude in this Step, as also at other remarkable Places of the Music. Besides, this Close gives great Life and Variety in the Composition of Dances; for whereas most other Steps lead the Dancers a regular Figure, and consequently render a Change thereof more difficult, in this Step, the Body being as much upon one Foot as the other, the Change is more familiar, since it is as easy to take up one Foot as the other. This Step generally takes up a Measure, that is to say, with the Time you rest or stand still: For Instance, to a Tune of triple Time the Close is performed to the first of the three Notes, and the second and third are counted, during the Time you rest; but to Tunes of common Time, as Marches, Gavots, Rigadoons, &c. this Step and Time it is to rest sometimes are a Measure, and at others not, as having a plain Step or Walk added thereto, which said Close and Step together fill up the Time.

(r) See the Figures in the first and second Plates.      See the Figures of Plate IV.     (s) See the Figures of Plate V.     || See Plate VI.     (t) See Plate the second.

(u) See the Figures of Plate IV.     2 See the Figures of Plates the IVth, IXth, XIth, XIVth, or XVth.     ||2 See the Figures in the first and second Plates.     (v) See the first Figure or Man's Side of Plate V.     (w) See the first Figure or left Side of Plate I.     (x) See the second Figure or Woman's Side of Plate IV.

CHAP. XIV.
Of the SPRING or LEAP.

THE Spring or Leap is the same as the latter End of the foregoing Close or Spring from one Foot upon both, except that the Close or Jump always begins from one Foot , the Weight constantly coming down in the same Place *, whereas this Step begins and ends upon both Feet, whether in the first or third Position * and may be performed several Ways, viz. forwards, backwards, sideways, to the right or left, upright and circularly *; but, when it is performed either of the two latter Ways, the Weight comes down in the Place from whence the Spring was made, as in the Close aforesaid, tho' in any of the former, as forwards, backwards, &c. they spring or leap, about the Length of the Half Coupee or March, and light on both Feet, as in Leaping.

As to the Agreement of this Step with the Notes of the Tune, it is uncertain; for to a Tune of three it sometimes takes up a Measure, and at others not: For Example, if you spring upright in this Step, the Fall marks what we call the Time or Cadence upon the first Note, whilst the other two are counted during the Time you rest; and in the like Manner, when it is performed circularly upon the same Place. Upright and circularly are the two Ways in which this Step is performed, when it singly answers to a Bar, as it frequently happens on the ending of a Strain or other remarkable Part of the Tune; and when it does not, as it rarely, if ever, does in the other Ways of performing it, we often meet, instead thereof, two Leaps and a plain straight Step in a Measure, which together with the two Springs agree with the Notes of the Music; and many Times we find a third Spring added, instead of the plain straight Step; which three Springs agree with the Notes, as before, tho' they are seldom used except in Comic Dancing and Tunes of common Time, that is to say, of four in the Bar, as in Gavots, Marches, Rigadoons, &c. in which this Spring or Leap on both Feet is the same, in its answering with the Notes of the Tune, except that, instead of two Springs and the plain straight Step to a Measure, or the three Springs, as in triple Time, in these of common there is but one Close and the straight Step; and also, instead of three Springs or Leaps, here are but two, which Steps agree with the Notes, as follows: The Fall or Coming down of the Weight from the first Spring beats Time to the first Note of the Bar; and the second and third Notes are counted, during the Performing of the plain Step. The fourth Note is always taken up with the Sink which prepares for the succeeding Step; and consequently it is very necessary to take Notice, that the two Leaps are performed in the same Method. The Coming down of the first Spring, as I said before, marks the Time or first Note; the Sinking or Bending of the Knees, in order for the second Rise or Spring, answers the same Note; and the third is in the Coming down of the Weight in the Sink, &c. as was just observed, which Step, if continued, is a sort of an harmonious Leaping to Music either forwards or backwards, &c. (y). It is to be likewise noted, that the upright Spring or Close affords the Dancer the like Opportunity of changing the Foot, during the Time of resting as in the foregoing Close, the Difference being only in its beginning and ending on both Feet; and, if performed on the Ground, it is intirely in the same Manner, as we have already described it in the Jump or Close from one Foot.

 See the Figures of Plate V.     * See the Figures in Plate I.

 See the Figure in Plate II.     * See the Figure of Plate IV.     * See the Steps in the second Plate and the Explanation and Table of this Step in the Plate of Tables marked E.

(y) See the Table of the Leap or Jump, in the Plate marked E or second Plate.

CHAP. XV.
Of the RIGADOON STEP of one Spring open in the same Place and Close.

THE Rigadoon Step of one Spring open upon the same Place is composed of two plain Steps or Motions of the Feet, except that the first commences with a Spring or Hop; which said Spring and plain Step is to a Measure, and introduces the upright Spring or Close on both Feet, before treated of, to another Measure in its Attendance on the former, from which it is almost inseparable; insomuch that the said Rigadoon Step is seldom, if ever, without this Close following it, as adding the greatest Grace and Beauty thereto, and being from thence so strictly united that, altho' in themselves they are two distinct Steps, the first never appears but concludes in the latter which in its Performance is as follows, viz. commencing from the first Position, or the Feet join'd even one with the other, from whence the Sink or Preparative for the Hop is taken, and may be done with either Foot. However, for the better Understanding thereof I shall describe it, with the right Foot: Therefore, as has been already observed, the Weight being on both Feet in the first Position (z), you sink and give a Rise or Spring, either off from the Ground, or upon it, as you shall think most agreeable, since it may be perform'd both Ways; which said Spring is made upon the left Foot, in rising from the aforesaid Sink, by taking the right Foot up from the Floor, the very same Instant the Spring or Hop is made, and moves open off to the right Side of the Room, if to the upper End, or otherwise according to what Part of the Room the Body is directed in the Air, about the Length of a Step in Dancing (a); and then it returns to the first Position from whence it came receiving the Weight; upon which the left Foot, being now disengaged, moves open sideways in the like Manner (b), and, in returning, receives one half of the Weight in the same Position as at firs(z); after which comes the Close on both Feet (c) which sometimes is to a Measure, and at others not, in that there often follows in Rigadoon Movements, a plain Step or Walk in the Time or Measure, as for Example, you'll find in this Movement of the Bretagne; that is to say, the Beginning of the second Part is the very same Step I have here described.

As to the Agreement of this Step with the Notes of the Tune, which is of four in the Measure, the Spring, or Hop, that is made upon the left Foot, on the taking up of the right, marks the Time or first Note; the setting of it down the second; the third is in the setting down of the left Foot; and the fourth and last Note, in the Sink for the ensuing Close that attends this Step, which together compose one of the most agreeable Steps in Dancing.

There are, besides these already described, many other Ways of performing this Step, as in the third Position forwards, and the same backwards; but, for the better Understanding of this, suppose you are standing in the first Pofition, or the Feet are joined even to each other (d), you perform this Step into the third Position, that is, you make the first Step which is with a Spring, and inclose it before the Foot on which the Weight rests (e), and the second before that (f) in the like Manner.

To perform this Step backwards differs in this, that as the foregoing was inclosed before, after the Spring, this is inclosed behind the Foot that supports the Weight(g), and the second Step behind that (h); or else the first of the said two Steps, namely, the Spring, may be done in the third Position before (i), and the second behind (j); or the first with a Spring behind (k), and the second Step before (l), and are to be performed from either of the said Positions, whether the first or third, as is also the Spring or Close that follows them, whether upright or changing of the Position; that is, instead of coming down in the first, or in the third, as at Beginning, the Feet are changed, for Instance, the first last, and the last firs(m).

(z) See the Figure in Plate II, only instead of facing down the Room you may suppose it looking to the Presence.     (a) See in some Measure the Feet in the second Figure of Plate XV.     (b) See the Feet in the first Figure of Plate XV.     (c) See Plate II.

(d) See the Figure in Plate II, supposed to be looking up the Room.     (e) See the second Figure of Plate IV.     (f) See the first Figure of Plate IV.     (g) See the first Figure of the said Plate IV.     (h) See the second Figure of Plate IV.     (i) See the two first or inclosed Feet of Plate IV.     (j) See the two hind Feet of Plate IV.     (k) See the hindmost Feet in Plate IV.     (l) See the inclosed Feet in Plate IV.     (m) See the Table and Explanation of this Step in the Plate of Tables marked E.

CHAP. XVI.
Of the RIGADOON Step of two Springs or SISSONNE.

THE Rigadoon Step with two Springs differs from the former of one in this, that whereas the aforesaid is performed in the same Place, and only with one Spring, this is of two; the first of which advances or retires, about the Length of a March, whilst the second Spring is in the same Place upon one Foot.

This Step may also be perform'd sideways crossing before, or sideways crossing behind, either to the right or left, or turning , &c. the Difference of which, in the Manner of Performance, I shall describe in their Order. For Example, first forwards, which may be done with one Foot as well as the other; yet, for the more easy comprehending thereof, I intend to explain it, beginning with the right Foot, which is as follows, viz. the Weight is on the left in the third Position, and the right behind; that is to say, the Ancle of the right Foot rests against the Heel of the left, but is intirely free from any Weight of the Body (n); from whence you make the first Spring which is upon the left Foot, whilst the right, at the same Instant, moves directly the same Way, as in the March, except that the March is performed on the Ground from a Bend and Rise only, but this off from thence, by an upright Spring into the Air from the Sink you make upon your left Foot, on which the Weight falls in the same Place, the right advancing, as has been already observed, about the Length of a March; but it does not receive the whole Weight of the Body, as in that, by Reason of its continuing principally on the same Foot on which it was, at commencing; so that, altho' the right Foot is advanced before the other, it receives no more than its own Weight, the whole being to follow on making the second Spring (o). Having thus far only concluded the first Spring or Movement, the second is made from the aforesaid Position divided; that is to say, the right Foot is, near the Length of a Step in Dancing, before the left; in which Position or Posture both Knees bend, the right to receive the Body, and the left to be disengaged from it, as it intirely is on giving the Hop or Spring; for, at the Instant the Foot on which the Weight was, is taken from the Floor, the other receives it, ending the Step in the third Position upon the right Foot, the left being behind but free from any Weight; the Ancle of which rests against the Heel of the Foot that supports the Body, in the same Position in which it begun, only with the contrary Foot (p), and may be continued from one Foot to the other, as in the March, &c.

This Step backwards is performed in the like Manner as forwards except that forwards it is taken from the third Position behind, but in this begins from the same Position before; that is, the Heel of the right Foot touches the Ancle of the left on which the Body rests (q), from whence you make the Spring in the same Method already described in this Step forwards, viz. the right and foremost Foot, at the same Moment the Spring is given upon the left, moves backwards, as in the March, much about the like Distance, and receives half the Weight, at the same Time the other half comes down upon the left, leaving the Weight divided to the first Spring or Hop (r); and the second is made on the right Foot, in the taking up of the left, which falls inclosed in the third Position as at beginning except that the contrary Foot is foremos(s), and the left is ready to commence, as before. This Step Sideways crossing before is so called, from its being crossed before the Foot on which the Weight of the Body rests, and it chiefly differs from the two Ways already described namely, forwards and backwards, in that it begins from the third Position behind, as aforesaid (t), but instead of the right Foot's moving, as in them, you in this give the Spring and Fall in the fifth Position, the right or beginning Foot crossing before the left, the Weight being divided, as before; that is, the Heel of the right Foot is equal to the Toe of the left (u), which Manner of placing the Feet we call the fifth Position. The second Spring or Hop is made upon the right Foot on the taking up the left, which is then brought into the third Position behind, and the right Foot into the same Position as the beginning but contrary Foot(v); which said Foot is ready to perform the same Thing either sideways crossing before the right on which the Body is, or sideways crossing behind, the latter of which I shall explain, in the next Place, and it is as follows.

Sideways crossing behind varies from the former only in this, that, instead of commencing from the third Position behind, it begins from before: For Example, the Weight being upon the left Foot(w) you sink and make the first Spring with the right, falling in the fifth Position crossing behind; that is, the Toe of the right Foot is equal to the Heel of the left, the Weight being divided, as has been already explained (x). The second Spring is performed upon the right, on the left's being taken up from the Ground, as aforesaid, which falls inclosed in the third Position before; that is, the Heel of the left Foot is joined to the Ancle of the right, and, being disengaged from Weight, is at Liberty to perform the same with the left Foot, as we have described with the right (y).

Having now shewn, how this Step is performed sideways crossing before, as also the same behind, it is unnecessary here to take any farther Notice of this Step sideways to the right, than that it differs in Nothing from what we have described to the left but in the contrary Foot; nor likewise of the Manner of its Performance in turning, otherwise than that it may be performed several Ways, as to the right or left, in a quarter Turn, half Turn, or three quarter Turn, &c. since I shall take Occasion hereafter, in the ensuing Steps, to treat more particularly on that Head. I shall only observe at present, that those who learn to dance, and are acquainted with the Rigadoon of the late Mr. Isaac, will meet with this Step, turning in all or most of the Ways above mentioned, in the different Parts thereof; and it is here, for Distinction sake, named of two Springs.

There is still another Way in which this Step is often made, and not as yet observed, which is the Reverse in the second Spring to the foregoing; for, instead of taking up, in the second Spring, the Foot on which the Body was, when you begun, the contrary Foot or that Foot which advances or retires is taken up: For Instance, admitting this Step to begin with the right Foot, of Consequence the Weight must then be upon the left, from whence you make the first Spring, as is usual, upon both Feet; but, instead of the left Foot's being taken from the Floor, as in the aforesaid, the right or beginning Foot is taken up on making the second Spring; which Choice of Feet in this Step renders it of equal Use, in the Composition of Dances, as the Close, in that the Change of Figure is to be effected in this, as well as in the aforesaid.

Having described most of the different Manners of performing this Step in Dancing, I shall proceed to shew its Agreement with the Notes of this Movement, which, as we have already said, is of four in the Bar, and it agrees as follows: The first Spring is made upon the Time or first Note; the Sink for the second is in the second Note, which second Spring is performed to the third Note; and the fourth is in the Sink preparing for the succeeding Step. And, when it is done to a Saraband or Tune of triple Time, it is in all Respects the same, except that, instead of four Notes in a Bar, in this you have only three, which are, in their Performance, much slower than the before mentioned of four to the Measure; and it is farther to be observed, that one half of the third Note is borrowed for the Sink that prepares for the ensuing Step, in which it chiefly differs from the foregoing of common Time, but that it is not so brisk.

 See the Explanation and Table of this Step in the Plate of Tables marked E.     (n) See the first Figure of Plate V.

(o) See the second Figure in Plate IX.     (p) See the second Figure of Plate V.     (q) See the second Figure of Plate IV.     (r) See in some Measure the first Figure in Plate IX, or second Figure in Plate XI.     (s) See the first Figure in Plate IV.

(t) See the first Figure of Plate V.     (u) See the Feet of the first Figure in Plate XI.     (v) See the second Figure of Plate V.     (w) See the second Figure of Plate IV.     (x) See the Feet in the second Figure of Plate XI.     (y) See the first Figure in Plate IV.

CHAP. XVII.
Of the GALLIARD and FALLING Step.

THE Galliard Step is in a Manner the same, as the befor described Close from one Foot to both, except that in this the Weight of the Body, after making the Spring or Movement for the Close, remains on the same Foot upon which it was at the Beginning; from whence it follows, that the Foot which, in the foregoing Close, received one half of the Weight, is here to be disengaged, and at Liberty to perform the succeeding one which is a plain straight Step or Walk; which Step could not have been performed with the commencing Foot, had it received one half of the Weight, as in the Close from one Foot. And you are to note, that this Step always ends with the same Foot it begins, whether it be the right or left, and is various, as to its Performance in Dancing. I shall describe the most usual of these Ways, which are as follow viz. forwards, backwards, sideways to the right or left, and also in turning a quarter Turn, half Turn, &c. (z) and, in all the aforesaid Methods of performing the Galliard Step, the Falling Step rarely, if ever, fails to accompany it, in that they are inseparable, in their Performance, as the RIGADOON Step open in the same Place of one Spring and upright Close upon both Feet we have before described, tho' they are two distinct Steps in themselves. However, sometimes, instead of the Galliard Step, we find the Coupee crossing before sideways introducing the Falling Step; which it does very naturally, their Endings being directly alike.

Now, as to the Method of performing the Galliard Step which, as I have said in the Description thereof, is compounded of a Close and plain straight Step or Walk, I shall begin with the right Foot advancing forwards, in the following Manner, viz. the Weight of the Body is upon the left Foot in the third Position, and the right disengaged behind (a); from whence you sink and give an upright Spring upon the left Foot, closing the right or hindmost Foot equal to it directly the same Way as has been described in the Close from one Foot to both, except with this Difference that, as I have said, the before mentioned lights on both Feet, but this comes down only upon one, namely the left; and it varies from the aforesaid, the right Foot being in the first Position, joined even with the left, and at Liberty to perform the following plain straight Step(b), which together with the foregoing Close compleats the Galliard Step; that is to say, after the plain straight Step has been made forwards with the right Foot, about the Length of a Step in Walking, it does not bring up the left equal to it, as in that, but leaves it in the same Place, whilst the Weight of the Body advances forwards with the stepping of the right Foot, the End or setting to the Floor of which receives the Weight; so that, as I have just observed, the left Foot is upon the Point behind, the like Distance, and the right advanced from it, in which Posture the Galliard Step concludes (c). Upon this commences the Falling Step, which is performed in the following Manner, viz. the Weight of the Body ending in the Galliard Step upon the right, the left Foot is pointed behind; at the same Time the Body bends or bows forwards, in order to the ensuing Fall which is backwards, but is prevented in it by the left Foot, which was planted for that Purpose upon the Point behind; and, at the very Instant the Weight of the Body inclines forwards preparing for the Fall, the left is advancing up to prevent it; which it does by receiving the falling Weight in a Sink or Bend of the Knee, in the third Position inclosed behind, releasing the right Foot (d), which is then ready to receive the Weight, on the Spring that is given from the left, immediately after its receiving the aforesaid falling Weight, and comes down upon the right Foot again, in the Nature of a latter Part of the Balonne, of which more hereafter; concluding in the same Position from whence the foregoing Galliard Step was taken, with the contrary Foot (e) and, in continuance together with the Galliard Step, it changes the Foot, as in the Half Coupee, or March, &c.

In performing this Step sideways, either to the right or left, it only differs from the former in the plain Step, which, instead of being made, as in the aforesaid forwards, is here performed sideways; and it may easily be understood by comparing it with the foregoing described, advancing to the upper Part of the Room: for Instance, supposing the Close to be made in the first Position, as before, the right Foot, instead of making the plain straight Step as in that, here makes it sideways to the right Hand, in like Manner as forwards. That is, the End or Setting down of the plain straight Step receives the Body; leaving the left Toe upon the Point sideways the like Distance from the right on which the Weight is, as has been shewn in this Step forwards, when the said Toe was left pointed behind, as it now is sideways; from whence commences the Falling Step, which, instead of forwards, as before, is made as follows, viz. the Weight being on the right Foot, and the left Toe upon the Point (f), as was already observed, the Weight of the Body falls to the right Hand, but, as I have said, is prevented; for, at the same Time the Weight falls, the left Foot which was upon the Point is brought with a swift Motion to its Relief, crossing behind the right on which the falling Weight is in the fifth Position, receiving the Body (g) which must otherwise have fallen, and releases the right Foot (h) which immediately receives the Weight again, in a Bound or Balonne sideways to the Hand the Fall was on, in that the left no sooner receives the falling Weight in a Sink or bended Knee, than it gives a Spring, in rising, and throws the Body, as in bounding back, upon the right Foot, concluding the Falling Step in the third Position, with the left upon the Point behind, instead of the right, as at firsi); from whence the said Galliard and Falling Step may be performed to the left Hand, in like Manner as the foregoing to the right, the Difference being only in the contrary Foot, Examples of which with both Feet begin the second Strain of the Rigadoon Part of a Dance, named the Bretagne, the first Time of its playing over, for they are the very same Steps here treated of.

These Steps may also be made with a quarter Turn, or a half Turn, &c. which, to give a more perfect Idea thereof, I shall explain with the left Foot, as follows, viz. the Weight being upon the right in the third Position, the left upon the Point behind (i) begins, in making the Spring or Close in the first Position as aforesaid only, instead of the Presence looking up the Room after the Close, it now faces to the right Side, which is a quarter of a Turn, and in this it differs from the two Ways last described; but the remaining Part of the Step is intirely the same, stepping the beginning Foot sideways to the left Hand, and facing to the right Side of the Room, as before to the upper. The Falling Step is also the same as before except, as I have said, in not facing to the same Part of the Room; and turning a half Turn only differs in this, that the first Spring or Close, instead of ending in a quarter of a Turn to the right, as before, continues a quarter Turn more, facing to the Bottom of the Room, the left Foot stepping sideways to the same Hand, as aforesaid, &c.

As to the Agreement of these Steps with the Notes of the Music, it is much the same as in the others: For Example, in the following Tunes, as Forlanes, Jigs, &c. the Close is made to the first Note; the second and third are counted in the straight Step of the Galliard, that is to say, the second Note, at the Beginning of the said Step, and the third, at its ending or receiving the Weight of the Body. And, suppose instead of performing this Step with a plain straight Step, as in Walking, you add thereto a Sink and a Rise, the Sink then answers the second Note, and the Rise the third; and in the succeeding Step the Fall of the Body marks the first Note, the Pause or Rest the Weight makes upon the Knees bent the second, and the third is in the contrary Foot's receiving the Body upon the Spring or Bound given from the Foot which preserved the Weight from falling, where ends the second Measure or Time. When these Steps are performed to Tunes of common Time, as they for the most Part are in Galliards, Bourees, Rigadoons, &c. they are intirely the same as in triple, only, instead of borrowing half the third Note for the Sink in common Time, the Sink or Preparative for beating the Time is upon the fourth Note, as has been shewn in the Rigadoon Step of two Springs; and the most usual Manner of performing this Step is in a soft and gentle Movement upon the Floor, tho' it may be done to Advantage either Way, viz. off from the Ground, or upon it.

(z) See the Explanation and Table of this Step in the Plate of Tables marked E. and Plate VII.

(a) See the first Figure of Plate V.     (b) See the first Figure of Plate I.     (c) See the second Figure in Plate VII.

(d) See the second Figure in Plates IV and XIV.     (e) See the second Figure in Plate V.     (f) See the first Figure in Plate VI. or Plate XV.     (g) See the first Figure in Plate XI.     (h) See the second Figure in Plate XIV.

(i) See the second Figure in Plate V.

CHAP. XVIII.
Of the BOUREE with a BOUND.

THE Bouree with a Bound, so called from its having a Bound added to the Bouree, is a compound Step consisting of four plain Steps and two Movements, the first whereof is made upon the Ground, but the other not: For Instance, you make a Movement or Sink and Rise to the first of the four Steps, the second and third compleating the Bouree or Fleuret; and the fourth and last is a Bound which is always performed off from the Floor, as we have already shewn, in treating of that Step.

I shall now proceed to shew, how these four Steps are to be reduced to agree with the Notes of triple Time or of three in the Measure, which may be accomplished, as follows, viz. the left Foot, with which we shall for Example begin, and the right are to be performed in a Motion as swift again, as the remaining two Steps, by reason they are both to be accounted but as one Note, and are made to the first of the Measure. The third Step, which is with the left Foot, is to the second Note, upon which the Bouree concludes; and the fourth Step is a Bound with the right Foot to the third Note, and compleats the Bouree with a Bound. This Step continued in Dancing, whether it be the right or the left, always begins with the same Foot, as has been already observed in the Coupee, and may be performed forwards, backwards, sideways to either Hand, crossing before, crossing behind, or crossing before and behind in the same Measure, or twice behind; and they are all of them directly the same, in their Manner of Performance, as was shewn in the Bouree of one Movement, only, as that was but of three Steps and one Movement to a Bar, this is of four and two Movements; and consequently, instead of performing the first two Steps equally slow, as in them, they must be quick here, in that they are both to be accounted as no more than one Step, as I have said; and as the Bouree or Fleuret breaks off, at the End of the third Step which is upon the left Foot, the Bound must be added thereto with the right, which is the only Difference from the Bouree aforesaid. It is unnecessary to say any thing farther of these Steps, in this Place, since they will be understood by what has been said in the Bouree or Fleuret of one Movement, having in that described all the different Ways mentioned here; but only to observe, that the first two Steps, as above, and the Bounds must be added.

CHAP. XIX.
Of the SLIP before and then behind, or SLIP behind and afterwards before, and HALF COUPEE sideways.

THE Slip before and then behind is a Step composed of four plain Steps, in a Measure, and two Movements; which said Movements may be done upon the Ground, or off from thence; but it differs from the Bouree with a Bound in this, that, whereas, in the Bouree aforesaid, the first Movement is always to be made on the Floor, and the second off, in this Step both are performed alike, either springing from the Ground, or upon it; and it is also to be noted, that these Steps seldom, if ever, are performed any otherwise than sideways to the right or left Hand, or with a quarter Turn, half Turn, &c.

These are the Ways this Step is usually made, as either slipping before and afterwards behind, or slipping behind and then before; the first of which I shall describe, beginning with the right Foot. For Example, the Weight of the Body is upon the left Foot in the third Position, the right being intirely disengaged from the Weight, so that it may be at Liberty to begin (k); which it does by making the first Movement or Bend and Rise from behind the left Foot to the first of the four Steps, stepping open off sideways to the right Hand (l), and the second Step, which is with the left Foot, is drawn crossing before it, (m) after which the right Foot makes the second Movement the same Way, which is the third Step; but, instead of the left and last Foot's being drawn before, as in the first Slip (n), it must now be drawn behind where it concludes receiving the Weight in the fifth Position (o).

To Slip behind and then before is, when the right Foot has made the first Movement and Step sideways in the Manner just described; and the second Step, which is with the left Foot, (p) instead of being drawn crossing before, as in the former, is drawn behind (q). The second Movement is also with the right Foot, stepping to the same Side (r), which is the third Step; and the fourth and last, which is with the left Foot (s), is drawn crossing before the right into the Position aforesaid (t).

To perform this Step with a quarter of a Turn, either to the right or left Hand, is only turning a quarter Turn to one of the said Hands, as it shall fall out; in Dancing however, as an Example, I shall explain it sideways to the right Hand, facing to the left Side of the Room, viz. before and behind, and behind and before, which are both to be performed, as follows: For Instance, these Slips, as before described, were sideways, facing the upper End of the Room to the right Hand; whereas, in a quarter Turn to the left Side of the Room, in the Sink of the first Movement, you prepare for the Rise or Beating Time; but instead performing it, facing to the upper End of the Room, as in the foregoing, in the rising, it makes a quarter of a Turn to the left Hand, which then will face to the left Side of the Room; yet in the Performance of the rest of the Step to the right, it is intirely in the same Manner as I have explained it, to the upper Part of the Room, there being no Difference except in the Turn.

A half Turn is the same as the quarter; only that, in the Rise of the first Movement, which is made with the right Foot, instead of turning a quarter Turn as before, that is, facing the left Side of the Room, in this you make a half Turn, which then faces the Bottom of the Room, performing the rest of the Step to the right Hand, in the same Manner we have described it to the upper End.

These Steps may likewise be done, both slipping behind, or both slipping before; the former is, when, in making the Movement to the right or left Side, the second Step, which is the Slip, is drawn crossing behind the first or beginning Foot; and the second Movement and Slip are performed in the like Manner.

Both slipping before is, when, in performing the said Movements, the Foot, which makes the Slips, is both Times drawn crossing before the Foot which begun, that is, the second and fourth Steps; and the first of these Steps, namely, twice slipping behind, is in the Rigadoon of the late Mr Isaac, where, in the Beginning of the Tune, the second Time of playing over, it forms a perfect Square, which is no small Addition to the Beauty of the said Dance; and this Step slipping before is no less remarkable, in that it is frequently met with in Dancing.

This Step, in all the different Ways of performing it, as above described, is seldom, if ever, without the Half Coupee sideways following it, on the same Hand to which the Slips were made, which seem not to have received their utmost Perfection, without this Step attending them; and as the Slips, before explained, were to the right Hand, this must be so likewise, and consists of one plain Step, as has been observed, in treating of the Half Coupee; to which is added a Movement or Sink and Rise, made with the right Foot stepping open off, sideways, from the Position in which the foregoing Slips ended, receiving the Weight on the setting of the Toe or Heel to the Floor (u); after which the left Foot makes a Motion in the Air, in the Form of a half Circle, before the Ancle of the right Foot, opening to the left Hand, and accomplishes the Time or Measure (v).

It still remains to shew, how these Steps agree with the Notes of common or triple Time; for they are very different in their Manner of Performance, which we shall proceed to explain, and chiefly in this, that in Tunes of triple Time either the first or second Slip, instead of being made quick as in Tunes of common Time, are as slow again; yet, for the farther Illustration of this Point, I shall observe, how these Steps agree with the Notes both of common and triple Time; which is as follows: To common Time or of four in the Bar, as in Rigadoons, Bourees, &c. But having already described the Motion or Stepping of the Feet, I shall wave the saying any Thing farther of it here, and only shew, that the first Slip or first and second Steps are to be performed in the same swift Manner we have shewn, in the Beginning or two first Steps of the Bouree and a Bound, and are both to be made upon the first of the four Notes. The second Note is counted in the Sink which prepares for the second Slip, which is the third and fourth Steps; the Rise which is made on the setting down of the third Step, or Beginning of the last Slip, beats Time to the third Note, which said Slip is compleated in the Sound of the third Note, in the same Manner as the first Movement to the first Note; and the fourth and last Note is counted in the Sink which prepares for the ensuing Step.

When this Step is performed to a Tune of triple Time or of three Notes in the Measure, as in Sarabands, Louvres, Passacailles, &c. sometimes the first Slip is quick, as in the aforesaid, and the second not; and at other Times the first is slow, and the second swift. When the Movement is made quick, it is performed, as above, to the first of the three Notes; the second, which is slow, takes up the second and third Notes. For Instance, as was already said, the first Slip or Coupee being made with the first and second Steps to the first Note, the second Slip, which begins with the third Step, is to the second Note; and the third is taken up in the gentle sliding or drawing of the fourth and last Step, whether before or behind. Half the third Note is borrowed, to mark the Sink which is for the next Step, as has been observed before; and, if the first Slip is slow, the beginning Step is to the first Note, the Slip or easy drawing of the second Step behind or before to the second Note, and the remaining Slip is swift to the third Note.

As to the Half Coupee, the first Movement or stepping sideways marks Time to the first Note; the second and third are counted in the half Circle the Foot makes in the Air; and the fourth in the Sink, provided it be common Time; but, if triple, half the third Note is borrowed, as I have said.

(k) See the first Figure in Plate V.     (l) See the Point or second Figure of Plate VI.     (m) See the Point or first Figure in Plate VI. and second Figure of Plate XI.

(n) See the second Figure in Plate XI.     (o) See the first Figure in Plate XI.     (p) See the first Figure in Plate VI.     (q) See the first Figure in Plate XI.     (r) See the second Figure in Plate VI.     (s) See the first Figure in Plate VI.     (t) See the second Figure in Plate XI.

(u) See the second Figure in Plate VI.

(v) See the first Figure in Plates XIV. and XV.

CHAP. XX.
Of the HOP or CONTRETEMP.

THE Hop or Contretemp is a compound Step consisting of two Walks or Steppings of the Feet, as the Coupee; and it may be performed various Ways, as advancing, retiring, sideways to the right or left, turning, &c. There are also two different Positions from whence this Step is taken and performed, namely, the third and fourth; the first of which we shall explain forwards, beginning with the left Foot, which is behind the right in the third Position(w), but so disengaged from the Weight of the Body as to be ready to act; which it does in the Sink that prepares for the Spring or Hop which is made upon the right Foot, lighting in the same Place; and at the Instant the Hop or Rise from the Ground is given, it leaves the aforesaid Position where it rested, during the Sink, and straightens the Knee, pointing the Toe directly sideways, as in the March (x); but it does not press upon the Floor, as in that, by Reason the March is performed upon the Ground, and this off from thence which is the principal Difference; for, instead of the Progress made by the disengaged Foot, as in the March, in this it must be performed in like Manner off from thence in the Air, the Weight all the while continuing on the same Foot upon which it was at commencing, 'till the left has advanced the Length of a March or Step in Walking (y); after which it receives the Body, and releases the right Foot that supported it, during its Procession, as aforesaid, which then makes a plain Step or Walk forwards , which is the second Step of the Contretemp, and is compleated on the setting down or receiving of the Weight upon the said Foot in the Position as at firs(z), being a Sort of Hopping Coupee.

To perform this Step backwards is intirely the same as forwards, only, instead of the left Foot's being in the third Position behind, the right is now inclosed before in the same or fourth Position (a), from whence it makes the Spring or Hop backwards, in the same Manner as was described forwards (b); after which the right Foot, instead of stepping forwards, as before, in this makes the second Step backwards (c).

When this Step is done with a quarter or half Turn, &c. the Weight of the Body, as has been observed, being on the right Foot, the Hop or Contretemp is performed, as we have already explained, but not to the upper End of the Room, instead of which it turns a Quarter of a Turn to the right Hand; but the rest is the same, as in the foregoing, only you are to observe, that it is facing to the right Side of the Room to which it advances.

The half Turn in no Respect differs from the former, except in its not stopping at the right Side of the Room; but, instead of that, it adds a Quarter more facing to the lower End of the Room, to which it is performed in like Manner, as above, to the upper; and if, instead of the right Hand, it be performed to the left, as it equally is in turning, as aforesaid, it is much the same, except that the quarter or half Turn, instead of being made to the right Hand, as in the foregoing, are now advancing to the left Side or Bottom of the Room; of which the Royal George affords us an Example, in that the said Dance begins with this Step, both to the right and left Hands, viz. the Gentleman performs it to the left Hand here spoken of, whilst the Lady does the same to the right.

There are, besides, other Ways of performing this Step from the said third Position, as sideways crossing to the right Hand, and in a Hop, Step, and Draw behind sideways to the left; which Steps differ from the foregoing in this, that whereas they were made either forwards or backwards, facing to the upper Part of the Room, or the same turning to the Sides or lower End of it, these, on the contrary, are always sideways, tho' they are performed turning all the Ways aforesaid: For Instance, to the right Hand sideways, the Face or Presence being to the upper End of the Room, and the Weight in the Position already explained (d), the Hop is performed in like Manner excepting that, instead of the left Foot's advancing as in that, or retiring from the Hop or Spring which is made on the right, it is here cast crossways before the right upon which the Body rests, about the Length of a March, and then receives the Weight (e); after which the right Foot makes the second Step of the Contretemp open off sideways, in the Manner above described in forwards (f).

When it is performed turning with a quarter Turn, or a half Turn, &c. it only varies in its not advancing to the Sides or lower End of the Room, as in the other, but, instead of that, it is made sideways to the right Hand, facing to the right Side of the Room in a quarter Turn, in the same Manner as to the upper End; the half Turn the like, only not facing to the right Side of Room, but instead thereof to the lower Part of it, which is a quarter of a Turn more.

The second of the Ways aforesaid is the Hop, Step, and Draw behind sideways, which is as follows, viz. to the right or left Hand, the last of which begins from the same Position treated of in this Step, namely, the third, the disengaged Foot being upon the Point behind the right (g), from whence this Step commences by making a Sink and upright Spring or Hop, falling in the same Place and Posture, as at first, only the Knees are bent; after which the left Foot upon the Point steps open off sideways to the same Hand, and receives the Weight of the Body from the right, either placing the Heel to the Ground or upon the Toe (h); and the right Foot, being then released, after the Hop and Step are made, as aforesaid, is drawn behind the left, the Toe pressing the Floor (i); as it is brought behind, and receives the Weight of the Body, as at commencing in the third Position, except that, instead of the left Foot's being pointed behind, it is now inclos'd before and concludes (j).

This Step with a quarter Turn differs from the Hop crossways to the right, only in the latter's not being made to the same Hand; for the quarter Turn, instead thereof, is performed, as above described, stepping to the left Hand, facing full to the right Side of Room, as in the other, and the half Turn, facing the lower Part of the Room, is, in its Performance to the left Hand, the same as the quarter to the right.

Having explained the foregoing Hop's Beginning with the left Foot from the third Position, I shall now describe it sideways with the same Foot, from what I call the fourth Position; that is to say, the Weight of the Body is upon the right, the left being directly the same sideways as the Beginning or first Movement in a March, only the Toe is not pointed to the Ground, as in that, but the Heel placed without any Weight (k); from which Posture of Standing this Step is taken and performed: For Instance, the Weight being upon the right Foot, and the left Heel placed, as aforesaid, about the Length of a Step in Walking, you make the Sink or Preparation for the Spring or Hop (l) by transferring the Weight from the right to the left Foot, the very Moment before the Spring is made, in taking up the right Foot from the Ground, the left at the same Instant receiving the Body, upon which the Hop is begun and compleated, as follows: The right Foot, being then at Liberty (m), makes a plain Step or Walk sideways crossing before the left, that supports the Weight, to the same Hand (n); after which the left Foot steps out the same Way and places the Heel, being ready to make the Spring, as before (o), by Reason you are now in the same Position, as at commencing, and concludes the Step.

This Hop, as just described, is to be found in the second Strain of the Rigadoon of the late Mr. Isaac, the first Time of playing over, at the End of the third Bouree of the Woman's Side; where the Lady stands upon the second Step of the said Bouree, viz. the right Foot, whilst the left, instead of receiving the Body as it would otherwise have done, only sets down the Heel to the Ground. From this Posture proceeds the Hop or Contretemp we are now treating of, which takes up the fourth Bar or Measure; and, as I have referred to this Place for an Example, I think it will not be improper to say something here of the Hop that follows the foregoing: Which differs in this, that whereas in the former the Heel is to be placed to the Ground upon the last Step, in this a Bound is made instead thereof, which is the only Difference, and the Reason of its being called a Hop, Step, and Bound; and it also remarkably varies from the aforesaid, in that it again conducts the Dancer into the Bourees, Coupees, and Half Coupees, &c. as the other leads him out of these Steps. To perform this Contretemp or Hop from the fourth Position forwards, the left or beginning Foot instead of being open sideways, as before, must be advanced, about the like Distance before the right, as the other was upon one Side of it; which Manner of Standing is what we call the fourth Position, from whence the Hop is to be made, being, in all Respects, the same as sideways to the left Hand only, as I have said, the left Foot must be advanced up the Room, which is done as follows: The Weight of the Body being upon the right Foot, and the Heel of the left to the Ground, as aforesaid (p), the Contretemp is made forwards upon the left Foot, the right being taken up from the Floor; which said right Foot then makes a plain Walk or Step forwards (q), that in the foregoing was made sideways crossing before the left; after which the left Foot is advanced, the Length of a Step, and the Heel placed in the fourth Position, as at commencing this Step, in Readiness to repeat the same (r). But, instead of that, I shall proceed to shew, how this Step is performed from the said Position backwards, viz. by the Weight's not advancing forwards to the left Foot, as before, but on the contrary the Hop is made on the right Foot backwards by taking up the left Foot, in like Manner as the other forwards in taking up of the right, except that the Weight is not transferred, as in the former, and then it makes the Step or or Walk backwards the same as before forwards (s); after which the right Foot makes the second and last Step backwards also and receives the Body, leaving the left Heel to the Floor, as at first, either to advance or retire (t); and these are the most usual Ways of performing this Step from the fourth Position.

The Method of performing the Hop or Contretemp, both from the third and fourth Position, being now explained, I shall take some Notice, how they agree with the Notes of Music, either of common or triple Time, &c. as for Example, from the third Position forwards, beginning with the left or advancing Foot to a Tune of common Time; which being accomplished will shew the Manner of the rest, whether backwards, sideways, or round, in that the same Method of counting will bear in them all, since the Hop certainly marks the first Note or what we call Time, tho' it be upon the right Foot, as in the third Position, or on the left in the fourth as follows, viz. the Spring or Hop, that is made upon the right Foot, beats Time to the first of the four Notes; the second Note is counted in the setting down or receiving the Weight of the Body upon the  eft Foot, after its having advanced the Length of a Step forwards; and the third Note is counted, when the right Foot receives the Body, as before, and finishes. The remaining fourth Note, as has been said, is in the Sink which prepares for the succeeding Step; and, to triple Time or of the Notes in three Bar or Measure, it is the very same, except that, as there are only three Notes, half the third must be borrowed for the Sink that prepares to mark the Cadence of the succeeding Step.

(w) See the second Figure in Plate V.     (x) See the first Figure in Plate VI, or first Figure of Plate XV.

(y) See the first Figure in Plate IX.      See the second Figure in Plate IX.     (z) See the second Figure in Plate V, as aforesaid.     (a) See the first Figure in Plate IV, or first Figure in Plate IX.     (b) See the first Figure in Plate VI, or first Figure of Plate XV aforesaid.     (c) See the second Figure of Plate IX, and for the second Step of the Contretemp the first Figure in the same Plate concluding as at first. See the first Figure in Plate IV.

(d) See the second Figure of Plate V.     (e) See the second Figure of Plate XI.     (f) See in some Degree the second Figure in Plate VI.

(g) See the second Figure in Plate V.     (h) See the first Figure in Plate VI.     (i) See the second Figure in Plate VI.     (j) See the first Figure in Plate IV, or second of Plate XI.     (k) See the first Figure in Plate VI.     (l) See the first Figure in Plate X.

(m) See the second Figure in Plates VI and XV.     (n) See the first Figure in Plate XI.     (o) See the first Figure in Plate X.

(p) See the first Figure in Plate IX.     (q) See the second Figure in Plate IX.     (r) See the first Figure in Plate IX.     (s) See the second Figure in Plate IX.     (t) See the first Figure in Plate IX.

CHAP. XXI.
Of the CHASSEE or DRIVING STEP.

THE Hop or Contretemp last explained having introduced us to the Position from whence the Chassee or Driving Step is performed, namely, the fourth, since in that we took no farther Notice than of its being sideways, or forwards, in the said Position, without explaining the particular Manner in which the last Step, whether of a Bouree, Coupee, Half Coupee, or March is to be performed, when introducing any of the aforesaid Hops or Driving Steps; and as this Step considerably varies, in its Method of Performance, from the Way in which it would otherwise have been done, had a Bouree, or Coupee, &c. followed, I shall observe, that it is much the same as when, in Fencing, we put ourselves in a Posture of Defence; but, this Posture being probably unknown to the Ladies, I shall endeavour to give an Explanation of it, which take as follows: The Posture of Defence most usually is to the right Hand, the whole Weight of the Body being upon the left Foot, and the right stepped out sideways to the same Side of the Room, about the Length of a Step, as in Walking; the full Part of the Heel first comes to the Ground, but afterwards the Foot is flat, only free from Weight, both the Knees being bent (u); from which Position or Posture the Hop before treated of is taken, as well as the Chassee we are now about to describe, or from whence the Longe or Pass is made in Fencing.

However it still remains to shew the Method, how the above-mentioned Step is to be performed, when we put ourselves in the said Position or Posture, in which consists the Perfection of it; and, for the greater Variety, in describing the same we shall begin to the right Hand, having already observed it to the left, in the Hop aforesaid. But, for the better understanding of this, we must take Notice, that in a Bouree we are to make a Stop or Rest upon the second Step, when any of this Sort of Steps follow; in the Coupee upon the first, and in a Half Coupee or March, &c. we stand in one of the Positions from whence it is to be taken, which differ according to the foregoing Step's being performed forwards, backwards, or sideways; but, in all of them, it is generally taken from the first or third Position either before or behind (v). We shall begin with the last: For Example, the Weight of the Body being upon the left Foot, the right at Liberty behind it prepares for the Kick or soft Stamp sideways, for so I must name it, as not knowing what more properly to call it, by raising the Heel of the hindmost Foot, whether right or left, with a gentle and easy Motion, the Toe or Ball of the Instep pointing down to the Ground, but not so as to bear upon it, by Reason it will not be ready to perform the Step aforesaid; which is exceeding swift, because, as I have said, the Dancer makes a Pause or Rest, until the fourth Note in common Time is almost spent, and in triple the third; but, before either of them expire, the easy Stamp or Kick is given, and instead of the Foot's being flat to the Ground, as in Fencing, in Dancing the Heel must first be placed thereto in order to receive the Chassee or Hop that succeeds (w). How the latter of them is to be executed, we have shewn in the Hops; and, having just before observed the raising of the Heel and pointing of the Toe, I shall also take Notice, that, just as the Kick or Stamp is about to be made, the Toe, instead of pointing to the Floor, as at commencing, rises from thence; and the Heel comes down, but does not receive the Weight, 'till the Hop or Chassee is made, which, in Dancing, is always immediately after this Step, it being a Preparation to that Purpose; for, as I have said, the Knees being bent, at the Instant the right Heel is struck against the Floor, it only remains to perform the Steps treated on; and whether forwards, or backwards, the Method is the same, as sideways above explained to the right Hand.

Having now given some Hints, as to the Manner how the Step, that introduces a Hop or Chassee, is to be performed, I shall proceed to the Explanation of the latter, which is a Step composed sometimes of three, and at other Times of four Steps to the Measure or Bar; and the most usual Way of their Performance is forwards and sideways. I shall begin with the former of these, namely, the Chassee or Driving-Step of three Steps in a Measure, advancing to the upper Part of the Room, which is as follows, viz. the Weight of the Body being upon the left Foot, and the right stepped forwards, as just explained, into the fourth Position (x) with the Knees bent, in order to the Performance of the Chassee, it begins by transferring the Weight; that is to say, before the rising from the said Sink, the Body, that was on the left Foot, is conveyed upon the right and foremost Foot, which then supports it, whilst the left, disengaged from the Weight, advances the Length of a Step, in rising from the abovesaid Sink into the third Position inclosed behind the right, and again receives the Body. The said Rising beats Time to the first Note of the Measure (y), upon which the right, being at Liberty, makes the second of the three Steps (z); but it differs somewhat from that of the Bouree, in its being stepped more open off to the right Hand, whereas the Bouree is directly advancing forwards upon which is counted the second Note; and the last is reckoned in the Kick or light Stamp that prepares for the Chassee following, which is the last of the three Steps, and made with the left Foot; for, as I have said, the Body, being on the right, rests thereon, whilst the left moves slowly forwards, the Toe pressing to the Floor, as in the March; but not much above half its Length, in that the remaining Part is allowed to the light Stamp the left Foot gives forwards, on the Expiration of the last Note; upon which it is then in readiness to perform the same thing over again, as in the Bouree (a); for this Step, in Continuance, changes the Foot, every three Steps, the same as a Bouree. This Step with the contrary Foot differs only in the Weight's being upon the right Foot, instead of the left, as in the former; and the left, at the End of the second Step of the foregoing Chassee, being advanced into the fourth Position, in the Manner we have just observed, begins by transferring the Weight, and taking up the right Foot, as the other did by the left(b), and so on if continued.

This Step sideways is the same as above explain'd, except that, instead of forwards, it is made sideways, which is the principal Difference; however, for the more easy comprehending of the same, I shall observe, that it begins from the fourth Position sideways to the right Side of the Room, the Face or Presence of the Body being to the upper End of the Room, the Weight upon the left Foot as before, with the right placed, as described by the Posture of Defence, or Step which introduces this Sort of Steps (c). The Weight is transferred, as before; and, in rising, the left Foot is taken from the Ground, but, instead of advancing up the Room, is now brought sideways into the third Position inclosed behind the right, and receives the Weight in Time to the Music (d). The second Step, with the right Foot, is sideways, the same Way, and receives the Body (e), which it supports, 'till the third or fourth Note is expired (f), according to the Time in which it is done, that is, whether it be of triple or common; upon which the last Step or light Stamp is made, the same Way crossing before the right (g), with the Knees bent in readiness to proceed to the Chassee following, which is performed in like Manner, but on the contrary Foot.

As we are now come to the Chassee of four Steps in a Measure, the foregoing of three having been described commencing with the left Foot, both forwards sideways and to the right Hand, I shall, on the contrary, explain this beginning with the right Foot, to the left Hand; but, in the first Place, I shall describe it, advancing up the Room, which is as follows: The Weight being upon the right Foot, the left advanced into the fourth Position (h), in the Method already explain'd, begins, as before, by transferring the Weight, but, as I have said, with the other Foot; for, as the Chassee of three in the Bar transferred the Weight from the left to the right, this does it from the right to the left, the right and hindmost Foot advancing into the third Position inclosed behind the left (i), directly the same Way as in that of three, except with this Difference, that as the first Note in that was counted in the rising and bringing of the Foot into the third Position, in this the two first Steps of the four must be performed swift to the first Note, as has been noted in the Bouree and Bound; and the second Note is in the stepping forwards of the third Step (j), only, as I have observed, a little open; upon which the Weight rests, 'till the third Note in triple Time is spent, or in common the fourth, in like Manner as, in the Driving-Step of three, it rested on the second, waiting for the Expiration of the third or fourth last Notes, at which Instant the Step or Preparative for the next ensuing is made, and concludes (k).

In performing the Chassee of four Steps in a Measure, above explained forwards, to the left Hand sideways, the left Foot, instead of being advanced, is open sideways in the fourth Position, the like Distance to the left Hand, as in the Point or Beginning of a March, only the Heel and Foot are flat, as has been shewn, in the Hop or Contretemp, to this Side of the Room (l) and it commences by changing, as above, forwards, only the right Foot, instead of advancing as in that, moves sideways and is brought, in the rising behind the left, into the third Position (m), at which Instant the left Foot, which is the second of the four Steps, is stepp'd with a swift Motion, the same Way, and marks Time to the first Note (n). Note The second is in the stepping and crossing of the right Foot before the left (o), which is the third Step; and the third is in the setting of the left Heel down, in order to perform it again, as was illustrated by the Posture in Fencing, or in common Time upon the fourth as has been said (p).

This Step may also be performed with a quarter Turn, which only differs in this, that, after the Rise or Movement is made to the first two Steps that mark Time to the first Note, the third Step, which is with the right Foot, instead of crossing before the left, as before, in the stepping of it, turns a quarter Turn, which then faces full to the left Side of the Room to the Music as above; the fourth and last Step, which is with the left Foot, steps sideways to the left Hand, the same Way as the foregoing to the Presence, and, if continued one Step farther, the first two Steps face to the left Side of the Room, as the foregoing did to the upper Part; and the third Step, in which you turn the quarter, instead of stepping to the left Side of the Room, now faces to the lower End of it; the fourth Step, with the left Foot, steps sideways to the same Hand, and so on, if you please, 'till arrived to the Presence as at first. It is to be noted, that this Step does not, in Continuance, change the Foot, as the Chassee of three in the Measure, or Bouree, but always begins with the same Foot, as in the Bouree with a Bound.

There is another Way of performing this Step, of which I shall take some Notice, viz. two Movements and Steps to the Measure, that is to say, the Chassee of three Steps in a Bar already explain'd, to which is added a Sort of a Half Coupee, in the Nature of a Driving-Step; which said Step is the fourth of the last described Chassee, except that it is made plain here with a Movement or Rise from the fourth Position from whence it begun, and the released Foot opens in the Air, forming a quarter of a Circle, or a half Circle, &c.

As to the Performance of this Chassee or Driving Step of two Movements, the most usual Way is forwards, turning a quarter, half, three quarter, or a whole Turn, the first of which is as follows, viz. beginning, as we will suppose, with the right Foot, upon which the Weight stands in the fourth Position, and the left advanced, but without any Weight (q), as has been said, except its own, commences by transferring the Weight in the same Manner as described in the Chassee of four Steps with one Movement forwards to the upper Part of the Room, that is, the first two Steps, namely, with the right Foot and the left (r); but not the third Step with the right, for, altho' it steps a little open, as in the aforesaid, it does not receive any Weight, by reason it prepares for the Half Coupee, which is to be made in the Manner of the Chassee before mentioned. This Step is made upon the second Note of the three, as was explained by the Posture in Fencing, only instead of sideways it is forwards (s); and, as was already shewn, the Knees being bent and Weight upon the left Foot, the Half Coupee, the second Movement of the Chassee, begins by conveying or transferring the Body from the left to the right and foremost Foot, immediately before rising, on which the left or hindmost Foot advances, sliding the Ball or Instep flat to the Ground into the third Position behind the right (t), which it releases; and, in its being taken up from the Floor, it makes a quarter of a Circle in the Air, opening to the right Side (u), facing the upper Part of the Room, or a quarter Turn to the right Side; or a half Turn to the Bottom, a three quarter Turn to the left Side, or a whole Turn; which said Coupee is performed to the third Note, if to triple Time; and in common to the fourth.

(u) See the second Figure in Plate X.     (v) See the first Figure in Plate I. second Figure in Plate IV. or first Figure in Plate V.

(w) See the second Figure in Plate X.     (x) See the second Figure in Plate IX.     (y) See the second Figure in Plate IV. or first of Plate XI.

(z) See the second Figure in Plate IX. only the right or advanced Foot is more open.     (a) See the first Figure in Plate IX.     (b) See the first Figure in Plate IV. or second of Plate XI. For the second Step only more open, as has been said, see the first the Figure in Place IX. and for the last Step, see the second Figure in the same Plate.     (c) See the second Figure in Plate X.

(d) See the second Figure in Plate IV. or first Figure in Plate XI.     (e) first upon the Toe and afterwards upon the Heel. See in some Measure the second Figure in Plate VI. and second Figure in Plate X.     (f) See the Point or first Figure in Plate VI.     (g) See the second Figure in Plate XI.     (h) See the first Figure in Plate IX.     (i) See the first Figure in Plate IV. or second of Plate XI. and, for the second Step which is made quick at the same Time, see the first Figure in Plate IX.     (j) See the second Figure in Plate IX.

(k) See the first Figure in Plate IX.     (l) See the first Figure in Plate X.     (m) See the first Figure in Plate IV. or second Figure of Plate XI.     (n) See in some Measure the first Figure in Plate VI.     (o) See the second Figure in the same Plate, and first Figure in Plate XI.     (p) See the first Figure in Plate X.

(q) See the first Figure in Plate IX.     (r) See the first Figure in Plate IV. For the second Step which is made quick at the same Time, see the first in Plate IX.

(s) See the second Figure in Plate IX.     (t) See the second Figure in Plate IV.     (u) See the second Figure in Plates XIV and XV.

CHAP. XXII.
Of the CHASSEE, or DRIVING STEP of two Movements or Bounding COUPEES.

THIS Step is performed two different Ways, viz. advancing and retiring; the former of which begins by transferring the Weight resting on the right or left Leg in the fourth Position, and the latter by a Sway or Wave of the Poise of the Body, either on the right or left Leg from the second Position, which is the most usual Method of performing this Step; for, being in the second Position, and the Weight as much on one Foot as the other, it is only waving or swaying the Body, whether upon the right or left Foot, during the Sink, preparing for the Chassee or Driving Step, that is made by the disengaged and pointed Foot, whichsoever it be, always retiring to the right or left, or backwards. But, if it begin from the Weight resting on the right or left Foot, as advancing to make the Contretemp, Chassees, or the like, it begins by changing, otherwise directly, without changing, being duly prepared; tho' in its Performance advancing, it much resembles the Chassee to the left Hand, of one Movement to four Steps, except that, instead of one Movement made upon the Ground, here are two Movements or Coupees off from thence; and it is a Step frequently found in Tunes of common Time, not much unlike what we often see Boys perform in Play, when they run along, and, in rising from a Sink, knock or beat one Heel against the other, lighting in the fourth Position, with the Knees bent, continuing the same, perhaps, the Length of a Stret or Field.

The Driving Step or Chassee of two Movements or Bounding Coupees is usually perform'd sideways, tho' sometimes to one Part of the Room, and sometimes to another, as it falls out, which is according as the foregoing Step ended to the right or left Sides, or upper or lower Ends of the Room; for the better understanding whereof I shall give an Example of it to the left Hand, facing up the Room as follows, viz. the Weight of the Body being upon the right Foot, the left in the fourth Position sideways, as in the foregoing Chassee or Driving Step of four Steps, to the same Side of the Room, the Knees bent (v), &c. it begins by transferring the Weight to the left Foot, as in that, only in the rising, instead of the right Foot's being brought behind the left in the third Position as in that upon the Ground, it is here made off from thence, in a sort of Springing or Bounding sideways, in which the right and commencing Foot, in a Manner, drives the left and second Step of the Coupee before it; for the Spring or Bound no sooner is given and the right Foot brought into the first Position even, or the third Position behind the left(w), than the left being at Liberty is driven the Length of a Step sideways (x) and then set down in the fourth Position, the Knees being bent, as in the Posture of Defence. This second Step concludes the first of the two Movements or Coupees (y), the Bound or Beginning of which is made upon the first of the four Notes, in that they are both counted as no more than one Step, as has been already shewn, not only in the Bouree and Bound but also in the Chassee of four Steps; the second of the four Notes is reckoned in the Rest or Pause the Weight makes upon the Sink that prepares for the second Movement, viz. the third and fourth Steps, perform'd in the same Method as the first, by transferring the Weight, as aforesaid, and being made upon the third Note concludes the Step; and the fourth, as I have said, is in the Sink or Preparation for the succeeding Step, whether it be of the same, or any other Sort.

To perform this Step to the right Hand is only to transfer the Weight: For Example, instead of the Body's resting upon the right Foot, as before, it must be placed on the left, with the right disengaged from any Weight, except its own, as has been shewn by the foregoing (z); the rest intirely, in the like Manner, advancing sideways to the right Side of the Room, as the other to the left.

Having explained this Step advancing, I will proceed to its Method of retiring; and the Difference between this and the former principally consists in the Weight of the Body's not being changed on its beginning now, as in the foregoing; but instead thereof it directly commences from the fourth Position in which we stand: For Instance, suppose you would perform it retiring, the same Way we have described it advancing, viz. sideways to the left, then, instead of the Body's resting upon the right Foot, as in the aforesaid, it must now rest on the left, the right being in the fourth Position sideways flat to the Ground, without any other Weight than its own, except the Toe a little pointed or pressing to the Floor, from whence it begins.

However, before I proceed in that, I shall explain it retiring down the Room; which is from the same Position, only the right Foot is advanced, and not sideways, as here; and because a Beaten Coupee or Hop, either forwards or sideways, generally introduces this Step, it may likewise not be improper to take some Notice of it, which I shall do, in the Explanation of the said Step's advancing up the Room, since that will be sufficient for the comprehending of it both Ways, in that the same Manner of Performance is to be observed in the one as in the other, only in the former the Beat is made sideways, instead of backwards, as in the present.

(v) See the first Figure in Plate X.     (w) See the second Figure in Plate I. or first Figure in Plate IV.     (x) See in some Measure the first Figure in Plate VI.

(y) See the first Figure in Plate X.     (z) See the second Figure in Plate X.

CHAP. XXIII.
Of the BEATEN COUPEE or HOP.

THE Beaten Coupee or Hop forwards, beginning from the first Position, the Weight of the Body being upon the left Foot (a), makes a Movement or Sink and Rise, as was shewn in the Half Coupee up the Room(b) and receives the Weight, as in that, upon the first Note, supporting the Body, whilst the left Foot strikes or beats against the Heel of the right (c), which Beat is upon the second Note; and then it steps back to the Place from whence it came, in order to receive the Weight again, which after the Beat retires off from the Foot upon which it was, in a slow Motion, waiting for the Expiration of the third Note; upon which it comes down on the left Foot, in the fourth Position, much in the swift Manner described in the Preparation for a Hop or Chassee (d).

If you would perform this Step with a Hop you only need, instead of the Movement as above, make a Spring or Hop upon the left Foot, whilst the right advances, as was explained in the first Spring of the Rigadoon Step of two; but tho' the Weight there does not come upon the advancing Foot, by Reason a second Spring is to be given first, here it must, as in the ending of a March, after which receiving of the Body the Beat is given, as above.

Having explained the Beaten Coupee or Hop, which conducts us to the Step we are treating of, and being in the Position from whence it is taken, that is to say, in the fourth, with the Weight upon the left Foot, and the right advanced, or more properly speaking, where it was left, in finishing of the Beaten Hop or Coupee; being I say in the fourth Position, with the Knees bent, the Flying Chassee or Driving Step of two Movements commences backwards, by bringing the right and foremost pointed Foot, in the Nature of a Spring or low Bound in rising from the Sink or Bending aforesaid into the third Position inclos'd before the left (e); which Bound or coming down of the right Foot marks Time to the first Note and relieves the left, which it drives backwards, the Length of a Step, receiving the Weight in the fourth Position (f), with the Knees bent as at commencing, upon which the first Movement is ended. The Bound and Step are both reckoned, on account of their Swiftness, but as one; and the second Movement is made to the third and fourth Steps, which are, in their Performance, intirely the same as the first. The second Note is in the Bending of the Knees, after finishing of the first Spring or Coupee; the third in the Bound upon the right Foot, which begins the second Movement; and the fourth is in the Bending of the Knees, as aforesaid.

As the Method, in which this Step is perform'd retiring, is now shewn, I shall return to the Place where I left off, and proceed in explaining it, as retiring sideways to the left Side of the Room and conclude what I shall farther say, on that Head; and first of all it must be noted, that it is the Reverse to the foregoing advancing, for as in that the Foot, on which the Body rests at beginning, pursues or drives before it the Foot without Weight, in this the disengaged Foot drives or pursues the retiring Foot that supports the Body, much like retiring in Fencing, as the first explain'd is a Sort of advancing, which I think plainly appears from what has been said in the Description of them.

The latter of the said Steps being now fully described, it only remains to add that, instead of backwards, it must be made retiring directly sideways, crossing the Room to the left Hand, in the same Manner as retiring down it, which is all the Difference; and consequently it is unnecessary to make a farther Repetition, except that, as where I left off (g), it commences from the fourth Position; and if perform'd retiring cross the Room to the right Side, it is taken from the same Position as when advancing to the left, only as I have observed, it begins without transferring the Weight; but, when taken from the second Position, it is only swaying or waving the Body to the Side you would perform it, whether right or left.

It is to be noted, that the foregoing Chassee or Driving Step of two springing Movements, when perform'd in triple Time, must have a Springing Coupee more added, to fill up the Bar or Measure; or instead thereof a Close, which is nothing more than that instead of finishing the additional Coupee, or in the Bound's lighting upon one Foot, as in that I described, it comes down upon both Feet, at the same Time, to the third Note in triple Time, compleating the Measure, as if the Coupee had been finished. Examples of the latter are to be found in the Chaconne de Phaeton of Monsieur Pecour, twenty Bars before the End; and the foregoing of two Springs and a Close is to be met with in the Passacaille de Scilla by the same Master, twenty seven Measures before the End, and in Tunes of common Time, as Allemaignes, Rigadoons, Bourees, &c. but, instead of the Chassee or Driving Step of two Springs, we frequently meet with one of them put with the aforesaid Close to a Measure (h).

(a) See the first Figure in Plate I.     (b) See in some Measure the second Figure in Plate IX.     (c) See the second Figure in Plate V.     (d) See the second Figure in Plate IX.

(e) See the second Figure of Plate IV.     (f) See the second Figure of Plate IX.

(g) See in some Measure the second Figure in Plate VI.     (h) See the Table of this Step in the Plate of Tables mark'd I.

CHAP. XXIV.
Of the CHASSEE or DRIVING STEP, of three Springs in the same Place, from the third Position.

THIS Chassee or Driving Step differs from the aforesaid, in its not being taken from the fourth Position, but from the third, in which Position as an Example we shall describe it, beginning with the right Foot, as follows, viz. the Weight is upon the left Foot, and the right in the third Position behind, being at Liberty (i), commences by bending both Knees, and at the same Time preparing for the Close or Drive, which is accomplished in the Straightening of the right Knee directly sideways (j), in the Rise or Spring from the Sinking aforesaid; in which it is brought into the third Position before the left on which the Body rests (k), and drives the left off sideways, or rather obliquely, in the Air (l), the Length of a Step. The said Spring or Drive with the right Foot marks Time to the first Note of the three in a Measure or triple Time; and the second is in the Spring or Drive with the left Foot now in the Air, which together with the right Knee that supports the Body bends, in order for the second Spring, which is made in a Rise from the same by a Spring or Bound into the third Position behind; then it releases the right by receiving the Weight (m) and drives the right Foot sideways into the Air, the Length of a Step (n), from whence the third Drive or Close is made to the same Note, by bending both Knees, as before; and, in the Spring or Rising from thence, the right Foot in the Air bounds into the third Position before the left  which it releases, tho' it is not driven, as in the others, but instead thereof remains in the third Position behind the right on which the whole Weight rests, concluding the Step on the contrary Foot (o), in Readiness to perform the same Step over again, and commencing with the left Foot.

The second Strain of the the Louvre begins with this Step, the last Time of its playing over, with the same Foot as here, that is to say, on the Man's Side, but with the contrary on the Woman's; and in the Dance it is performed facing to the right Side of the Room or Lady, and not to the upper End of it, as here described.

In triple Time this Step transfers the Weight and Foot, every Measure as in the Half Coupee, March, or Bouree; but, when done to Tunes of common Time, instead of three Drives or Springs in a Measure, as in triple aforesaid, there must be only two; and consequently, if continued, they will always commence with the same Foot as the Bouree and a Bound, or Coupee, &c. unless Steps of a contrary Nature, as the Bouree, Half Coupee, or March be made between them.

The Driving Step of two Springs agrees with the Notes of common Time, in the same Manner as was described in the Flying or Driving Step of two Movements; and it makes no small Figure, either in common or triple Time, since in the latter it is rare to meet with a Passacaille, or Chaconne, without it; but, on the contrary it is sometimes found in three or four Places of one Dance, which demonstrates, how greatly it is valued and esteemed by Masters (p).

(i) See the first Figure in Plate V.     (j) See the second Figure in Plate XV, or second Figure in Plate VI, only the Toe does not touch the Floor.     (k) See the second Figure in Plate IV.     (l) See the first Figure in Plate VI, only the Foot is in the Air.     (m) See the second Figure in Plate IV.     (n) See the second Figure in Plate XV.

 See the second Figure in Plate IV.     (o) See the second Figure in Plate V.     (p) See the Table of this Step in the Plate of Tables mark'd I.

CHAP. XXV.
Of the FLYING CHASSEE or DRIVING STEP backwards, with a CLOSE and COUPEE to a Measure

THE Step, which I am now about to explain, begins from the fourth Position, as well as the Hop or Chassee; but, before I proceed, it must be observed, that it is composed of three different Steps, and commences with the first Movement of the Flying Chassee or Driving Step retiring down the Room exactly in the same Manner as was explained, in treating of that Step , ending in the fourth Position to the first Note, the Weight being upon the left Foot, and the right advanced, or rather, as I have said, left without Weight, in Readiness to begin the second Movement of the said Step (q); which Movement is made upon the second Note of the Saraband or Passacaille, to which it is done by making a Close from the Position above mentioned, in rising from the Sink or Bending of the Knees in which the Chassee to the first Note ended; which Spring or Close is made, in turning a quarter Turn to the right Side of the Room, from the upper Part thereof, into the third Position, by taking up the right or advanced Foot, at the Instant the Close is made upon the left, before which the right is inclosed (r). The third Note is in the Coupee, which is the third Movement and concludes the Step; and the said Coupee, which must be performed swift to the last Note, commences, by the right or inclosed Foot's making a Movement or Sink and Rise, stepping open off sideways to the right Hand (s), facing, as aforesaid, to the right Side of the Room, rather inclining backwards than directly sideways, by Reason of its making Way for the left or hind Foot's more easy and natural crossing before the right sideways into the fifth Position, in the Method shewn in treating of the Slip before and then behind, ending, as I have said, upon the third Note, with the Knees bent preparing for the following Step, which most usually is a Half Coupee (t); and it begins by taking of the right or hind Foot up, in rising from the aforesaid Bending of the Knees, which is brought behind the left into the third Position (u), turning a quarter Turn back again, from the right Side of the Room to the upper End, upon the first Note of the Measure. The second and third Notes are in the half Circle or Motion the left Foot makes in the Air, in its being taken from the Floor, (v) which, as I have said, is upon the right Foot's receiving the Weight in the Rise from the first Step; and the left Foot, being in the Air, is ready to perform a Pirouette, or any such like Step.

If, instead of the right Side of the Room, you would perform it to the other Hand, the left Foot must be in the fourth Position advanced before the right on which the Body rests, in like Manner as the right was before, without any Weight except its own (w), from whence it commences to the left Side of the Room, directly as the foregoing to the right; and the Step here treated on is to be found in the Passacaille Darmid for a Woman, composed by Monsieur L'Abbee, in the sixth Measure, beginning with the right Foot, as above explained (x).

 See Page 75. [Chapter 23, paras 2-4]     (q) See the second Figure in Plate IX.     (r) See the second Figure in Plate IV, only it must be supposed facing to the right Side of the Room.

(s) See in some Respects the second Figure in Plate VI, only it must be supposed to the right Side of the Room.     (t) See the second Figure in Plate XI. and it also must be facing as aforesaid.     (u) See the first Figure in Plate IV.     (v) See the first Figure in Plate XV.     (w) See the first Figure in Plate IX.     (x) See the Table of this Step in the Plate of Tables marked I.

CHAP. XXVI.
Of the HOP of two Movements, from the fifth Position round in two half Turns.

THIS Step is much used in Stage Dancing, to which, indeed it properly belongs, as well as the foregoing; but as there are Ladies, who frequently arrive at such a Persection as to be capable of performing this Sort of Steps, it may not be improper here to give an Explanation of some of the most remarkable of them, of which Number that under Consideration is one; which is often found in Tunes of triple Time, and sometimes in those of common, consisting of two Movements, viz. a Hop and a Bound both made in turning, the first commencing either from the fourth or fifth Position; from which last we shall explain it, beginning with the right Foot that supports the Body, as in the Chassee or Driving Step, only the left, instead of being either open sideways or advanced in the fourth Position, from whence the aforesaid Steps are taken, must be a little more crossed, that is to say, the left Heel towards the Toe of the right Foot, without the least Weight bearing upon it, by Reason the Step begins by transferring the Weight (y), which is accomplished in this Manner: The Body, as has been observed, being on the right Foot, immediately before the Hop or first Movement is made, is conveyed upon the left and foremost Foot, by transferring the Weight, upon which the Hop is given on the left Foot, in the right's being taken up from the Ground turning a half Turn from the upper Part of the Room to the lower End thereof, to the right Hand, making a half Circle in the Air the same Way behind the left Foot where it arrives. At the same Instant, the Hop is made upon the first Note of the Measure; the second is in setting down the said right Foot in the fourth Position advanced before the left, on which the Weight rests, in its being brought from behind the left Foot, where it mark'd the first Note (z). The third Note is in the coming down of the Bound, which is made, as aforesaid, in transferring the Weight from the left to the right, the very Moment before the Spring or Bound is made, by rising from the Sink or Bending of the Knees, which was on the setting down of the right Foot to the second Note, and bringing the left Foot on which the Body rested in a low Bound or Spring into the third Position behind the right; which being then released makes the remaining half Circle in the Air, by turning a half Turn more to the same Hand, as in the Hop or first Movement from the lower End of the Room to the upper Part, and finishes the Step with the other Foot in the Air sideways (a). To perform the same Step with the other Foot, we are only to set down the right Foot into the fifth Position before the left, on which the whole Weight rests, which begins, as aforesaid, by transferring the Weight (b); and the Hop turns a half Turn to the left, exactly as the foregoing was described to the right (c), &c. This Step is to the third Measure of the Passacaille Diana, beginning with the same Foot, as above described (d).

(y) See the second Figure in Plate XI.

(z) See the first Figure in Plate XII.     (a) See the second Figure in Plate XV.     (b) See the first Figure in Plate XI.     (c) See the second Figure in Plate XII. concluding &c. as in the first Figure of Plate XV.     (d) See the Tables of this Step in the Plate of Tables mark'd I.

CHAP. XXVII.
Of the CHACONNE or PASSACAILLE STEP.

THE Chaconne or Passacaille Step is composed of three Movements, viz. first a Bound, secondly a Hop, and lastly a Bound, or Balone, and it is most usually taken from the third Position. I shall, as an Example, describe it commencing with the left Foot which in its Performance is as follows; that is to say, the left Foot disengaged and at Liberty behind the right, in the Position aforesaid (e), begins the first Movement by making a Bound, in the Manner already shewn in treating of that Step, which, as I have there said, is accomplished by a Sink or Bending of the Knees; from whence the Body is thrown into the Air, in the Spring from the Sink or Bending aforesaid, only turning a half Turn to the right Hand, and comes down upon the Toe of the left Foot to the first Note; at which Instant the right, on which the Weight rested before the Change was made, follows or rather attends the left Foot, in the same swift Manner as explained in the Bouree and a Bound, remaining behind the left up in the Air, in order to perform the Movement that next succeeds, facing to the lower End of the Room (f); from which Posture the Hop or second Movement is taken, and marks the second Note, by sinking and making a Spring or Hop upon the left Foot which supports the Body, turning half a Turn to the right Hand, from the Bottom to the upper Part of the Room. The right Foot, which at the End of the Bound was behind the left, about the Length of a Step in the Air, is now the like Distance before it (g), ready to make the Bound or Balone, as the French call it, to the third Note of the Measure, which is in bending both Knees; and, in springing from thence, the Weight is transferred from the left Foot, and lights upon the Instep or Toe of the right which was in the Air, concluding in the third Position, as at commencing (h).

This Step, if continued, always begins with the same Foot, as the Coupee or Bouree with a Bound; and to perform it with the contrary Foot only differs in this, that, instead of being in the third Position just described, the Weight must be upon the left Foot, with the right at Liberty behind (i); and, instead of turning to the right Hand, it now turns to the left, beginning with the right Foot, &c. (j) as the foregoing with the left.

This Step, as above explained, is to the fifh Measure of the Passacaille Diana aforesaid, and also in the same Measure of the Passacaille de Scilla mentioned before, commencing with the right Foot; and it is a most agreeable Step in Dancing, rarely missing to be found more than once in one of these Sorts of Dances (k).

(e) See the second Figure in Plate V.     (f) See the second Figure in Plate XIII.     (g) See the second Figure in Plate XIV.

(h) See the second Figure in Plate V.     (i) See the first Figure in Plate V.     (j) See the first Figure in Plate XIII. the first in Plate XIV. and the first in Plate V.     (k) See the Table of this Step in the Plate of Tables mark'd I, and also the List or Explanation.

CHAP. XXVIII.
Of the HOP and two CHASSEES or DRIVES round in the same Place.

THE Hop and two Drives or Chassees is likewise a Step composed of three Movements, as the Title above specifies, and is performed from the fourth Position, in the Manner described in the foregoing Hop of two Movements from the fifth Position; which said Step begins by transferring the Weight in the like Method as the present. Having explained the former, beginning with the right Foot, I shall explain this with the contrary, and it is performed as follows, viz. the Weight being upon the left Foot, the right in the fourth Position advanced and at Liberty is prepared to receive the Body (l); which it does, the very Instant before the Hop or first Movement is made to the first Note, and from thence, I say, begins by sinking or bending of the Knees, in order for the following Spring or Hop, which is made upon the right Foot, in the left's being taken up from the Floor, and marks Time to the first Note, as was before observed, turning a half Turn from the upper End of the Room to the left Hand and leaving the left Foot without Weight, in the third Position behind the right, facing the lower End (m); from whence the first of the two Drives begins in bending of the Knees, as already shewn in the Chassee or Driving Step of three Movements, upon the same Place, in Preparation for the Spring or Bound made in straightening of the Knees, turning a quarter Turn farther to the left Hand, facing full to the right Side of the Room, and lighting upon the left Foot, on its being brought into the third Position before the right, which is drove by it backwards, the Length of a Step in the Air; which said coming down of the left Foot is to the second Note, and the third is in the Spring or Bound made upon the right; and, in the Rise or Spring from the sinking or bending of the Knees, as aforesaid, the right Foot advances into the third Position behind the left, which being then released is drove, the Length of a Step in the Air, turning a quarter Turn more, opening to the left from the right Side of the Room to the upper End, and concluding in the Air (n).

To perform this Step with the other Foot only differs in this, that, instead of the right Foot, the left Foot must be advanced (o) and, instead of turning the half Turn to the left Hand, as before described, it turns to the right, directly in the same Manner as the aforesaid (p); Examples of both which are to be found in the Chaconne de Phaeton of Monsieur Pecours, in the eighty seventh Measure beginning with the right Foot, and in the ninety first of the same Dance with the left, as above described (q).

(l) See the second Figure in Plate IX.     (m) See the first Figure in Plate XIII, only the left Foot, instead of being in the Air, must be supposed to rest against the Heel of the right.     (n) See the first Figure in Plate XV.     (o) See the first Figure in Plate IX.

(p) See the second Figure as aforesaid in Plate XIII, and the second Figure of Plate XV.     (q) See the Table of this Step in the Plate of Tables marked I. and also the List or Explanation.

CHAP. XXIX.
Of the FALL, SPRING with both Feet at the same Time, and COUPEE to a Measure.

THE foregoing Step, ending in the Air with the left Foot, naturally introduces us to the present, which is of three Movements, and taken from thence in falling, springing with both Feet at the same Time, and a Coupee; all which Steps are to be performed to a Measure, and consequently accounted but as one Step, which, in its Performance, is as follows, viz. the Face or Presence of the Body being, as in the foregoing, supposed with the Weight upon the right Foot (r), the Step begins by falling much in the same Manner, as explained in treating of this Step, when introduced by the Galliard sideways to the right Hand, only this is backwards in a slow and easy Motion, the very same as if you intended to fall quite to the Floor; but, as I said before, it is prevented from that by the left Foot which is in the Air, with the Toe pointed towards the Ground, attending and watching the falling Body so narrowly that, the very Instant it is in a manner past Recovery, it flies swift to its Relief, to save it from falling, by receiving half the Weight in the fourth Position behind the right Foot (s), with the Knees bent upon the first Note; from whence the Spring is immediately made with both Feet, acting at the same Juncture upon the second Note, that is, by changing the right Foot backwards and the left forwards (t), the Knees being bent, as aforesaid, in Readiness to make the succeeding Coupee; which is done by taking up the left or foremost Foot from the Floor and from the Bending aforesaid rising upon the Toe or Instep, making an open Step to the left Side of the Room to the third Note, neither directly sideways nor forwards, but between both. The second Step of the Coupee, which is with the right Foot, follows it, stepping the same Way in the like swift Manner, as the Beginning of the Bouree with a Bound, into the fourth Position before the left (u), with the Knees bent as above.

In order to make the Half Coupee, that usually follows this Step, which is very slow in that, of itself, it answers to a Bar, like the foregoing of three Movements, upon the Weight's being changed, the left Foot, which before supported the Body, being at Liberty, advances, in rising from the Sink or Bending aforesaid into the third Position behind the right (v), which then is released, and makes a Circle in the Air to the second and third Notes, the first being upon the left's receiving of the Weight as aforesaid; and the Half Coupee, concluding thus with the right Foot in the Air, is ready to perform either a Pirouette, or the same Step over again with the contrary Foot (w); which only differs from the foregoing, in its beginning with the right Foot, and is found in the Passacaille de Scilla, twelve Bars before the End, beginning with the last mentioned Foot, and in other Places of the same Dance (x).

(r) See the first Figure in Plate XV, or first Figure of Plate XIV.

(s) See the second Figure in Plate IX, only the Weight must be equally upon one Foot as the other.     (t) See the first Figure in Plate IX.     (u) See the second Figure in Plate IX.     (v) See the second Figure in Plate IV.     (w) See the second Figure in Plate XV.     (x) See the Table of this Step in the Plate of Tables marked I, and also the List or Explanation.

CHAP XXX.
Of the CLOSE beating before and falling behind in the third Position, upright Spring changing to the same before, and COUPEE to a Measure.

THE Close beating before &c. which we are now about to explain, differs from the before described Step of this Name, in its being done to the first Note of the Measure, and, instead of resting the remaining two Notes, as in the aforesaid to the second, there are the upright Spring and Coupee to the third; and, instead of the Close's ending either in the first or third Position with the Knees straight, as in the former, it here comes down behind with the Knees bent, after its beating before. This Step is to be performed as follows, viz. commencing either with the right or left Foot from the third Position (y), by sinking or bending not only the foremost Foot on which the Body rests, but likewise the hind Foot without Weight; or from thence it begins, by making the Close in the like Manner, as aforesaid, in treating of this Step in the Rise or Spring from the above named Sink; but, instead of the Close's lighting in the first or third Position, as in the foregoing, the beginning Leg beats before against that on which the Body rested at firs(z), and comes down in the third Position, as at commencing, only the Weight is equally upon both Feet (a), and the Knees are bent, marking the first Note. The second, as I have observed, is in coming down after the Rise or upright Spring from thence into the Air, in which the Feet are changed, viz. the first last and the last firs(b), the Knees being bent, as aforesaid, upon the first Note in Preparation to make the following Coupee, which is swift upon the third and last Note of the Measure, whether of a Saraband or Passacaille, &c. by rising in the Step the first Foot makes forwards, opening either to the right or left Hand and receiving the Weight (c); after which the hind Foot and second Step of the Coupee move swift, the same Way, into the Fourth Position before (d) it, with the Knees bent, concluding in Readiness for the Coupee that usually attends these Steps; which is, as I have said, in the last described Step, as exceeding slow as the foregoing or its Introducer was quick, and made in rising from the aforesaid after transferring the Weight, and bringing the hind Foot into the third Position behind the foremos(e), which being released makes a Circle in the Air, as aforesaid, either to the right or left Hand, according to which Foot the Step begun with (f), and is ready to perform the Step over again with the contrary Foot to that with which you commence.

You are to take Notice, that these two Steps are in a Manner inseparable, as I have already observed of some others in the Beginning of this Discourse, and are to the last Measure excepting two and a half of the Spanish Entree for two Men, composed by Monsieur Pecour, belonging to the Opera de l' Europ Galante; and also in the Entree Espagnole for a Man and a Woman, in the aforesaid Opera, composed by the same Master (g).

The above described Step is sometimes performed, turning a whole Turn round, that is to say, half a Turn upon the Close beating before and coming down behind in the third Position, the other half being in the upright Spring; and instead of the Beat's being made against the Foot on which the Weight rested, when facing the upper End of the Room, it is here made to the lower Part in a half Turn, either to the right or left Hand, lighting in the third Position behind; from whence the upright Spring is taken, in rising or springing from the Floor, as aforesaid, only, instead of the Feet being changed facing the Bottom of the Room, the remaining half Turn is made to the same Hand up it: For Example, suppose it commences with the right Foot from behind (h), then the Turn must be to the left, the Close ending to the lower End in the third Position, with the right Foot behind (i); but, in the half Turn belonging to the upright Spring, it is changed in the Air, and comes down in the third Position before the left, on which the Body rested at firs(j).

The Coupee is intirely the same, as described in the foregoing, beginning from the first or inclosed Foot; and, if with the left Foot, it begins in the same Manner, by making a Spring or Close, &c. turning to the right, as above (k).

(y) See the first and second Figures in Plate V.     (z) See the first or inclosed Feet of the first and second Figures in Plate IV.     (a) See the hind Feet of the two said Figures in Plate IV.

(b) See the Change in the first and second and second and first Figures in Plate IV.     (c) See the two first or advanced Feet in the Figures of Plate IX.     (d) See the right or advanced Foot in the second Figure of Plate IX, and the left or advanced Foot of the first Figure in the same Plate.     (e) See the second and first Figures in Plate IV.     (f) See the Figures in Plate XV.     (g) See the twenty first Table in the Plate of Tables marked I, and the List or Explanation of the said Table.

(h) See the first Figure in Plate V.     (i) See the first Figure in Plate IV. and for the Beat before see the second Figure in the same Plate, only the Feet must be supposed in the third Position down the Room.     (j) See the second Figure in Plate IV.     (k) See the twenty second Table in the Plate of Tables mark'd E and the List or Explanation of the said Table.

CHAP. XXXI.
Of the PIROUETTE.

THE Pirouette is a Step that altogether consists of Motion and Turning. There are two different Ways of performing it; either from a whole Position, the Weight resting on both Feet; or a half Position, when the Weight only rests upon one Foot, the other being in the Air, from whence it begins, as will appear: For instead of performing it from the fifth Position, directly as we stand, as in the former, in the latter it is made by adding a Step with the Foot in the Air backwards into the abovementioned Position behind, from whence they turn equally alike to either Hand upon the same Place, the Weight of the Body resting mostly upon that Foot which at first supported the Weight, the Difference being only in the stepping of the Foot which may as well be made forwards as backwards.

I shall now proceed to explain the Method of performing this Step, both these Ways, beginning in the first Place with the whole Position, which is as follows, viz. being, as was already observed, in the fifth Position, that is to say, when the Heel of either the right or left Foot, instead of being advanced right forwards, as in the fourth Position, is, as I have before shewn in the Hop of two Movements, round in two half Turns from the Position now treated on, and about the Length of half a Foot more cross'd before the hindmost Foot; so as that the Heel of the first in a Manner touches the Toe of the hind Foot, the Weight of the Body bearing as much upon one Foot, as the other, instead of the whole Weight's being upon the Foot which is behind, as in the Hop of two Movements (l).

Having shewn the Position or Posture of standing, from whence this Step is taken, I will continue its Explanation, turning to either Side of the Room; and it is no more than making a Sink or Bending of the Knees in the above explain'd Position, the Rise whereof is made upon both Insteps to the first Note, in binding or pressing them strong to the Floor and raising the Body into the Air, during the Turning or Measure to which it is made: For Instance, if to the right, the left Foot is foremos(m), if to the left the right (n)  From the last of these we shall describe it, as follows: The Sink and Rise being made, as aforesaid, to the first Note, the second and third, if to triple Time, are in the slow Turning of the quarter Turn, which is to the left Side of the Room, in which the Feet are changed; namely, the right, which at commencing was first, is now last, and the left first, facing full the Side of the Room to which the Turn was made; and, if a half Turn, it is only adding a quarter Turn more, which then will be full to the Bottom of the Room; and, if a three quarter Turn, it continues on to the right Side of the Room a quarter Turn further.

It is also to be observed, that, if a quarter Turn be to a Measure, the second and third Notes are counted, during the Turning or Pirouette; the same, if a half or three quarter Turn; or, if to common Time, the same as already shewn in many Places of this Discourse. And, if it be a whole Turn, it is intirely the like in Relation to the Notes, but not in its Method of Performance; for, instead of the Body's bearing equally upon both Toes, as above, it now bears, in rising from the Sink or Preparative for the whole Turn, upon the Heel of one Foot and Toe of the other: For Instance, in the rising, as aforesaid, or marking the Time, the Weight bears half upon the Heel of the right or foremost Foot and the Toe of the Foot that is behind, in which Manner it turns to the left, as before, as far as the Bottom or lower End of the Room; at which Time the Toe of the fore Foot and Heel of the hind come to the Floor, continuing the Turn, 'till you arrive to the upper End of the Room or Place of setting out, and finish in a Readiness to perform the same to the other Hand if Occasion requires, by Reason of the Feet being changed, as I have said, in the middle of the Turn or setting down the Heel of the hind Foot and Toe of the foremos(o). Both the Ways of performing this Step, as above explained, turning a whole Round, are to be found in the fourth Bar of the Saraband belonging the Royal Galiard, composed by the late Mr. Isaac, and written by Mr. De la Gard, the second Time of its playing; the foregoing three quarter Turn, in the short Saraband for a Man, composed by Mr. Pecour, in his Collection of Dances published at Paris, in the Year 1704, by Mr. Feuillet, the thirteenth and fifteenth Bars before the End of the said Dance; and the quarter and half Turns are to be met with in most Dances (p). I shall now proceed to describe the second Way in which this Pirouette is taken and performed, viz. from a half Position instead of a whole, as was, for Example, the foregoing; that is to say, when the Weight of the Body is either upon the right or left Foot, and the other open in the Air pointed sideways, as in the March, or about an Inch or two more forwards, only it does not touch the Floor, as in that, by Reason of its being the commencing Foot; from whence it begins, by making a Step backwards into the fourth Position, if it be a quarter or half Turn; but, if a three quarter or whole Turn, it must be made into the fifth, as aforesaid, all of which are performed directly in the same Manner, as the foregoing or whole Position, by dividing the Weight, at the End of the stepping backwards of the Foot that was in the Air, which, upon setting it to the Ground, receives so much of the Weight as only serves to direct and assist the Body in turning, as well as marking the Time, as aforesaid, in rising from the Sink made for that Purpose, on the stepping of the Foot backwards upon both Toes, and turning either to the right or left Hand, which is according to the Foot that is in the Air, for the Turn must be made to the same Side; for Example, if the right Foot be in the Air, the Turn is to that Side (q); and if the left, it is to the left (r).

Having explained the foregoing or whole Position, turning to the left Hand, the taking some Notice of it to the right may not be improper, in this Place, beginning with the quarter Turn: For Instance, the Weight being upon the half Position or left Foot, the right, extended as aforesaid (s), begins in making a Sink or Bending of the Knee of the left Leg on which the Body rests; at which Instant the right is cast back, as was said above, into the fourth Position behind the left (t), and preparing for the Rise marks the first Note, which is made on setting down or receiving a Part of the Poise of the Body upon the Foot that was in the Air; from whence the Turn takes its Rise, turning in a slow and gentle Turn to the right Side of the Room, and bearing or pressing the Toes to the Floor, as we have already shewn in the foregoing, in which Turning the second and third Notes are spent; that is to say, the second Note is counted in changing of the Feet, which is in the Turning, as I have said, for the right Foot, which was in the fourth Position behind, is about the second Note in the same Position before the left, facing full the right Side of the Room; and the third Note is upon setting down the Heel of the left Foot, and taking up the right, which is extended open sideways, as at first, and concludes.

A Pirouette with a half or three quarter Turn only differs from the Pirouette just explained, in not ending to the right Side as in that; but, instead thereof, the half Turn finishes to the lower Part of the Room, half a Turn from the upper End (u). And the three quarter Turn continues on, 'till it face full the left Side; but the whole Turn, as I have said in the Pirouette, beginning from a whole or half Position, on which the Weight is equally divided, instead of rising upon both Toes alike, at the End of the Step made with the right Foot, by sinking and stepping backwards, as before observed, into the fifth Position behind the left Foot (v), in the Rise or Beginning of the Turn the right Toe or Instep, being set down to the Ground in the Position just mentioned, receives one half of the Weight, the other remaining upon the Heel of the left on which the Body rested at first. In the said Manner half the Turn is made to the Bottom of the Room, bearing equally upon the Heel and Toe; and, when it arrives there, the remaining half is continued, by putting down the right Heel and Toe of the left Foot, which at first begun upon the Heel, as the right did upon the Toe, about which Time the Feet are changed, as we have observed; that is, the right, which was stepp'd or cast into the fifth Position behind, is now first, and the left last, concluding with both Feet flat on the Floor, the Presence of the Body being to the upper End of the Room, as at commencing (w).

As to the Agreement of this Step with the Notes of common or triple Time, it is the same as already explained in the Pirouette beginning from the whole Position; the only Difference is, that the Weight in that, being equally on both Feet, begins directly by making a Sink and Rise, the Rise of which beats Time to the first Note of the Tune, which is the same in this Step, except that the Body, being supported by a half Position, before it can begin as in the whole Position, the other Foot which is in the Air must be cast or set down in the fourth or fifth Position; from whence this Step is usually taken, in stepping either forwards or backwards, as the Step is to be made. The remaining second and third Notes of the Measure, if to triple Time, are counted, during the said Turning, a whole Round; or, if to common Time, the fourth is included, as has been observed.

This Step, in its Performance forwards, is in all Respects the same as the last described backwards, as to its Agreement with the Notes, or its Rising, Turning on the Toes, &c. only whereas, in the two foregoing Pirouettes, the Manner of performing the whole Turn is not the same as the quarter, half, or three quarter Turn, in this the whole Turn is done in the same Method as the rest, except that the Step is made forwards into the fourth or fifth Position, instead of backwards as in the last explained; and, as I have already observed in the foregoing Steps, if the Turn be only a quarter or half Turn, it commences from the fourth Position (x), but if a three quarter or whole Turn the fifth (y). This Step forwards farther varies from the foregoing backwards, in that, altho' it commences with the same Foot, instead of turning to the right Hand, as in the former, in this it turns to the left, as in the whole Position; so that, comparing this with the Pirouette first described, it will be easily understood, in that it is the same, except in not beginning directly, as in that; but if you suppose the stepping of the Foot forwards to be made, and place your Feet in the fourth or fifth Position, as before observed from a whole Position, there is then no other Difference, except that the whole Turn is performed in the same Method as the other (z).

(l) See the firft and second Figures of Plate XI.     (m) See the second Figure in Plate XI.     (n) See the first Figure in the same Plate.

(o) See the contrary Figures in Plate XI. that is to say, for the first see the second, and for the second see the first Figure.

(p) See the twenty fourth Table in the Plate of Tables mark'd I. and also the List or Explanation of the said Table.     (q) See the second Figure in Plate XV.     (r) See the first Figure in Plate XV.     (s) See the second Figure in the same Plate.

(t) See the first Figure in Plate IX.     (u) See the first Figure in Plate XII.     (v) See the second Figure in Plate XI.

(w) See the first Figure in Plate XI. And, if beginning with the left Foot, see the first Figure in Plate XV, and the first and second Figures in Plate XI.     (x) See the second Figure in Plate IX, beginning from the second Figure in Plate XV. And, if with the contrary, see the first Figure in Plate XV, and the first Figure in Plate IX.

(y) See the first Figure in Plate XI, commencing from the second Figure in Plate XV; and, if with the other Foot, see the first Figure in the aforesaid Plate XV, and it concludes in the second Figure of the aforesaid Plate XI.     (z) See the twenty fifth Table in the Plate of Tables mark'd E, the List or Explanation of the said Table, and also the Steps contained in Plate XV.

CHAP. XXXII.
Of the PIROUETTE introduced by a COUPEE.

THIS Step is taken from a half Position, as well as the two last described backwards and forwards; but, instead of the Foot's being extended sideways in the Air, as in them, the Toe must here be pointed to the Floor, as in the Point or Beginning of the March, from which Position it commences.

However, before I proceed to a farther Explanation of this Step, I shall take some Notice of the Coupee that introduces it, which is composed of a Half Coupee with one Foot and a circular Motion made in the Air with the other, before its making the Point; which Step may be performed as follows, beginning with either Foot, by sinking and making a Half Coupee or Step forwards, marking Time to the first Note, in rising from thence.

If we suppose this Step to be made with the right Foot (a), the circular Step or Motion with the left must then be made inwards to the second and third Notes, or the fourth, if common Time; that is to say, the Half Coupee being made with the right Foot, as aforesaid, the whole quarter of the left Leg moving in the Air, with the Knee stiff and Toe pointed, makes a circular Motion, by moving directly off sideways, as in the Point for a March (b), only more round continuing on forwards, about that Distance from the other, forming a Sort of a Circle in the Air before the right Foot on which the Body rests all this Time, in bringing the left Leg, as above directed, that is to say, the Toe pointed and Knee stiff into the third Position, so as to touch the Ancle of the right Foot (c); and then it passes on directly sideways to the left Hand making a Point, about the like Distance from the Foot you stand upon as the March (d); from whence proceeds the Pirouette we are about to treat of, which is performed by making an easy Sink or Bending of both Knees preparing for the Rise or Straightening of them, which resembles a Spring, only it is not from the Ground; for, in the Rise or Spring from the Sink aforesaid preparing for the whole Round, the left Foot which was upon the Point is taken up from the Ground, turning quite round to the left Hand in the Air, with the Leg or whole Quarter extended in the Air, the Toe pointed, and Knee stiff, as in the circular Motion, about half a Foot from the Floor (e). The Body, at the very Juncture the Rise or Spring is given, rises upon the Toe or Instep, as erect as a Pyramid, and turns round along with it, finishing to the upper Part of the Room as at first, only with the Toe in the Air; from whence it may be continued as the Half Coupee, or Bouree, &c.

This Step usually takes up a Measure, whether of three or four Notes to the Bar; the Rise or Spring to the Pirouette marks the first Note, and the rest are in the Turning; but the Coupee and Pirouette, tho' frequently found together, are in themselves distinct Steps (f).

There are various other Ways of performing this Step, besides the described, as twice round, three Times round, round in an upright Spring beating before and behind during the Turning, and many more; which, as they are foreign to my present Purpose, I shall omit, and say something of the Bouree before and behind, turning, &c.

(a) See the first Figure in Plate I.     (b) See the first Figure in Plate XV.     (c) See the first Figure in Plate IV.     (d) See the first Figure in Plate VI.     (e) See the first Figure in Plate XV. If with the other Foot, see the second Figure in Plate I, the second Figure in Plate XV, the second Figure in Plates IV and VI, and lastly the second Figure in the aforesaid Plate XV.

(f) See the twenty seventh Table in the Plate of Tables marked I, and the List or Explanation of the said Table.

CHAP. XXXIII.
Of the BOUREE before and behind, and behind and before, advancing in a whole Turn.

THIS Step is composed of two Bourees; but, tho' in Dancing it may be performed to all Parts of the Room, or upon a Circle, an Explanation of it, commencing with the right Foot advancing to the Presence or upper Part of the Room, shall suffice, in that the rest will be comprehended thereby, since the Difference is only instead of facing, as aforesaid. The Presence or Body, for Example, must be directed to the Part or Side of the Room, to which the Step is made; whether to the right or left Hand, lower End, or on a circular Figure, it will be the very same, except that, advancing to the said Parts, as before, upon a right or straight Line, you must perform the said Step circularly or round, commencing either with the right or left Foot, as it shall fall out, from any of the aforesaid Parts of the Room. This will appear from the following, which, as I have above observed, is advancing to the upper End of the Room with the right Foot, in order to which the Weight must be upon the left, with the right disengaged and at Liberty in the first Position (g), which begins in making a Movement or Bending of the Knees; from whence the right makes the first Step of the three that compose the first of the two Bourees up the Room (h), in stepping crossways before the left, on which the Body turns a quarter Turn to the right Side of the Room, the Rise of which, whether upon the Toe or Heel, marks the Time or first Note. The second Note is in the next Step with the left Foot, on its receiving the Weight, which it does, after making a Step circularly before the right, in a quarter Turn more, now facing full to the Bottom of the Room (i); and the third and last Step with the right, which is now upon the Point in the fourth Position before the left, concludes the first Bouree, in pressing or sliding the Toe against the Floor into the same Position behind the left, receiving the Weight upon the third Note of the Measure, and leaving the left Foot upon the Point in the like Manner (j).

The first Bouree being thus ended, the second also begins with a Movement or Bending of the Knees, as aforesaid; from whence the left is stepped or cast behind the right, in turning a quarter Turn farther, which will then be to the left Side of the Room, the Rise of which is to the first Note or Time to a second Measure; and the second Step of this Bouree is with the right Foot, turning the fourth or last quarter Turn from the left Side of the Room, the Rise of which is to the first Note or Time to a second Measure; and the second Step of this Bouree is with the right Foot, turning the fourth or last quarter Turn from the left Side of the Room to the upper Part or Presence thereof, the setting down or receiving of the Body upon which is to the second Note. The third Note is in the last Step of the Bouree made with the left, directly up the Room; and upon its receiving the Weight the second Bouree is ended, concluding in the first Position, as at commencing.

The foregoing Step, as above described, consists of two plain Bourees or Fleurets of one Movement only, whereas it frequently is performed with two; and if so, the second must be made upon the third Step, whether on the Ground or off from thence as in a Bound, as has already been explained in treating of these Steps.

But sometimes in Dancing, instead of the second Bouree, a Coupee is sound commencing with either Foot, as it shall happen; but here it is with the left crossing before the right Foot on which the Body rests (k), in a quarter Turn from the lower End of the Room to the left Side, or in a half Turn to the Presence, the right Foot or second Step of which is set to the Ground, in the Method as when introducing a Hop (l), or, instead of the Coupee aforesaid, as in the seventh and eighth Measures of the first Couplet of a Dance of my own Composition, named the Submission, that is to say, on the Woman's Side. The left Foot not coupeeing before the right, as above, instead thereof, in turning a half Turn, receives the Weight, in rising from the Sink or Bending of the Knees in the third Position behind the right (m), which then is taken from the Floor, making a circular Motion in the Air opening to the right (n) and inclosed in the third Position behind the left (o), as in the two first Measures of the second Couplet of the aforesaid Dance on the Man's Side; and if the said Steps are with the other Foot, as on the Woman's, the same Method of Performance is to be observed to the left Side of the Room, as in the foregoing to the right (p). I have been the more particular in describing these Steps, because they are of more than ordinary Grace and Variety to Dancing; but I shall now proceed to the Minuet, the Subject of the second Book of this Work.

(g) See the first Figure in Plate I.     (h) See in some Measure the second Figure in Plate IX, only it is to turn as directed.     (i) See in some Respects the first Figure in Plate VIII, only the right Toe must be, as directed, upon the Point.     (j) See the second Figure in Plate XII, except that the left Toe must be pointed as directed.

(k) See the second Figure in Plate XII.     (l) See the second Figure in Plate X.     (m) See the second Figure in Plate IV.     (n) See the second Figure in Plate XV.     (o) See the first Figure in Plate IV.     (p) See the second Figure in Plate I.   See in some Measure the first Figure in Plate IX, only turning to the left.   See in some Respects the second Figure in Plate VIII, only the left Toe is pointed.   See the first Figure in Plate XII, the first Figure in Plate X, the first Figure in Plate IV, the first Figure in Plate XV, and the second Figure in Plate IV.   See the twenty ninth Table in the Plate of Tables mark'd I, and also the List or Explanation of the Characters of this Step.

The End of the FIRST BOOK.


THESE are to certify, that the foregoing Book, intitled the ART OF DANCING EXPLAIN'D, was designed and composed long before the Book, intitled the DANCING MASTER, appeared, as we believe; and that we have carefully examined the said Book, and found it composed and written, in the same Manner it now is, on the twenty seventh Day of January, 1727-8.

Witness our Hands,
ALEX. JACKSON,
JOSEPH JACKSON,
}Dancing-Masters.