THE
ART of DANCING
EXPLAIN'D.


BOOK the SECOND.


CHAP. I.
Of the MINUET STEP.

THE Minuet Step is composed of four plain straight Steps or Walks, and may be performed forwards, backward, sideways, &c. four different Ways, to which there are the like Number of Names annexed, to distinguish them from one another, arising, not improperly speaking, from the Placing of the Marks upon them: For Example, a Movement or Sink and Rise, being added to the first Step of the three belonging to the Minuet Step, produces a Bouree; and the like to the fourth and last a Half Coupee, which together compose what is commonly called the English Minuet Step.

The second Method of its Performance is with a Bound; that is to say, instead of the Half Coupee or Movement to the last Step made upon the Floor, as in the aforesaid, you bound instead thereof, which is the only Variation from the foregoing.

The third Method is quite the Reverse, because, instead of the Bouree, the Half Coupee is made first and afterwards the Bouree, or as the French term it, One and a Fleuret, which is usually called the French Step.

The fourth Way of performing this Step is, by adding another Movement to the third Step of the aforesaid Fleuret, or the fourth of the Minuet Step; and it will then be notwithstanding the same Step, only of three Movements. As to the two first foregoing Steps, I shall say little concerning them, for the following Reasons: In the first Place, because they are now rarely, if ever, practised amongst Persons of the first Rank, and seem to be, for the present, intirely laid aside; not as being ungraceful, or that the Dancer could not give Pleasure to the Beholders, or raise to himself a Reputation, in their Performance, but merely through Alteration of Fashion, which varies in this Respect, as in Dressing, &c.

Secondly, because they have been, in some Measure, already explained in the Beginning of this Book by the Bouree and a Bound, which, from what I then observed, appears to be the same as the Minuet Step here treated on, except that it there answers to a Measure or Bar, but here to two, as the Time is much brisker than in the aforesaid slow Movements; and, as to their Agreement with the Notes, it is very different from what I have to say, upon that Head, to the two last Steps following; the first of which is the third of the aforesaid, namely One and a Fleuret, or a Half Coupee and Bouree, usually called the New Minuet Step, and the same that is now danced in all polite Assemblies (q). As it is become the favourite Step, my being somewhat more particular in its Description, than of the foregoing, may not be lost Time; for the Minuet is one of the most graceful as well as difficult Dances to arrive at a Mastery of, through the Plainness of the Step and the Air and Address of the Body that are requisite to its Embellishment, as will farther appear from the Sequel.

But to return to the Subject in Hand; having, I say, already observed, that the Minuet Step is composed of four plain Steps, without shewing the Method of their Performance, or their Agreement with the Notes of the Tune, I shall now proceed to describe both of these, which are to be accomplished in the following Manner: The Weight of the Body being upon the left Foot in the first Position the right, which is at Liberty (r), begins the Minuet Step, by making the Half Coupee or first of the four Steps belonging to the Minuet, in a Movement or Sink and Stepping of the right Foot forwards (s), the gentle or easy Rising of which, either upon the Toe or Heel, marks what is called Time to the first Note of the three in the first of the two Measures, which is of triple Time or of three Notes to a Bar; the second Note is in the coming down of the Heel to the Floor (t), if the Rise was made upon the Toe, but if upon the Heel or flat Foot, in the tight Holding of the Knees before the Sink is made that prepares for the Fleuret or Bouree following, in which is counted the third and last Note of the Measure aforesaid; and the said Bouree or second Part of the Minuet Step, if I may so say, is made upon the second Measure of the Tune, as the Half Coupee was to the first, so that it is visible, from what has been said before, that one Minuet Step is of equal Value to two Measures or Bars of the Tune.

The Sink or Beginning of the Movement, that prepares for the Fleuret or second Part of the Minuet Step, for so I shall for the future call it, being made, there only remains to rise from the Sink aforesaid in the stepping forwards of the left Foot (u) to the first Note of the second Measure, and first of the Fleuret or three last Steps of the four that compose the Minuet Step; the second Step of the said Bouree or Fleuret is made, swift forwards with the right Foot (v), to the same Note; and the third and last Step of the Bouree, or second Part of the Minuet Step with the left Foot (w), is to the third and last Note of the same Measure of the Tune, concluding the Minuet Step with the Weight upon the said Foot, as at firs(x). It is to be noted, that it always begins with the right and ends with the left Foot; and it is performed faster or slower, according to the Tune that is played, which the Dancer is obliged to follow.

Having described the foregoing Step forwards, I shall now proceed in it sideways to either Hand; and, in the first Place, to the right Side of the Room, or rather obliquely, that is to say, from the upper left Corner of the Room to the right lower facing to the upper right Corner of it, or rather in the Middle between directly sideways facing the upper End of the Room and, as said above, from Corner to Corner: For Example, instead of the left Side to the upper Corner and the right to the lower, the left Side or Shoulder points about the Middle of the upper left Corner and sideways directly cross the Room; which will be easily understood by a supposed Line across the Room, for the right Shoulder consequently pointing the same Way below the Line, instead of facing the right upper Corner, as before, is now to the Middle or Space between the said Corner and directly up the Room; which will likewise be comprehended, by supposing a right Line up the Floor, and the Face a little turn'd looking towards the left Shoulder, or, more properly speaking, upon the Gentleman or Lady with whom we dance; and the said Turn, or rather Complaisance gives a most agreeable Twist or Contrast to the Fashion of the Body in this Step, and not a little Beauty to that Part of the Minuet Dance upon which it falls ; but of that more hereafter.

Having described the Action or Posture of the Body in which this Step must be performed, if to Advantage, I shall proceed in explaining the Motion or Stepping of the Feet upon the aforesaid Tract or Line; which is sideways to the right Hand, instead of forwards, as in the foregoing, which is the principal Difference (y). However, as it may not in all Probability be so fully comprehended by what has been said in the foregoing Step, it may not be improper to take some farther Notice of it in this Place, viz. That it is to be taken from the first Position, that is to say, the Weight being upon the left Foot the right, which is at Liberty (z), commences by making a Sink and Step, open off from the left Foot, on which the Body rests, sideways to the right (a). The Rise of the Sink marks Time to the first of the three Notes; and the rest are the same, as when done forwards, the Half Coupee or first Part of the Minuet Step being made to the first Measure of the Tune, as aforesaid, ending in the same Position upon the right Foot, with the left disengaged (b) to perform the Bouree or second Part of the said Step sideways, in like Manner as in the foregoing forwards; which it does in making a Sink and Step to the right Hand sideways crossing behind the right on which the Body rests (c), the Rise of which is to the first Note of the second Measure. The right Foot then makes a plain open Step sideways to the same Hand (d), upon the second Note, leaving the left upon the Point, in the very Place the Body rested before, in Readiness to make the second Step, and is about the Distance of a Point in the March (e); upon which the third and last Step of the Bouree and Minuet Step is made to the third Note of the second Measure of the Tune, by drawing the left Foot, pointed as it is firm to the Floor into the fifth Position behind the right (f), receiving the Body, and concludes in the first Position, as at firs(g); and it may be continued, as long as the Dancer pleases.

The third and last Method of performing this Step is as follows: Instead of obliquely, as in the last explained to the right Hand, it is here diametrically or sideways crossing the Room directly to the left Hand, facing, not as in the aforesaid, but instead thereof full either up or down the Room, as it shall happen 2.

This Step, in Performance, differs from the last described in this, that the right or beginning Foot, which before made the Half Coupee off to the right, now instead thereof makes a Sink and Step sideways to the left Hand, crossing behind the left Foot (h), which supports the Body, marking Time to the first Note of the same Measure, and filling up the remaining second and third Notes, intirely the like as in the foregoing, except that, instead of the first Position as in them, it here ends in the third with the left Foot foremost or inclosed at Liberty to perform the Bouree, in the same Manner to the left Side of the Room, as before to the right (i). The said Bouree or second Part of the Minuet Step begins, by making a Sink and open Step, off sideways from the right on which the Weight rests to the left Hand (k), the Rise or Receiving of the Body upon which marks Time to the first Note of the second Measure, and the right Foot makes the second Step of the Bouree to the second Note, in drawing it pointed (l) crossing behind the left (m), from the Place where it supported the Weight, before the first Step of the Fleuret was made; and the third and last Step of the Bouree and fourth of the Minuet Step is made, by stepping the left Foot open off from the right (n), in like Manner as the commencing of the Fleuret, only without a Sink, ending in the first Position, as at the Beginning of the Step, upon the left Foot (o), which Step may be continued either diametrically or circularly, as Occasion offers.

We are now arrived at the fourth and last of the before mentioned Steps, namely, that of three Movements or Bendings and Risings; which is also commonly called the New Step, from its being used now as much, or very little less than the last explained of two Movements only, and more especially when performed to the left Hand sideways before and behind, in that it composes a Part of the Minuet Dance, as now practised, of which I shall have Occasion to speak more particularly hereafter.

In the Interim I shall proceed in describing the present Minuet Step of three Movements, which, as I have already said, is only the Addition of a Movement or a Sink and Rise more to the last Step of the Bouree or second Part of the Minuet Step; yet it will require a farther Explanation, by Reason that it differs very much from the last explained, in its Agreement with the Notes of the Tune; for, tho' that may properly be divided into two Parts or Divisions through the Half Coupee, in that it, together with the Sink which prepares for the succeeding Bouree, answers to the first Measure of the Tune, and the Fleuret or second Part of the Minuet Step to the second, and consequently is of equal Value, tho' no more than a single Step, with the other three remaining, it is not the like here, because the four Steps that compose the Minuet Step are partly of an equal Space or Distance one from the other, as in counting of one, two, three, four, and cannot so justly be divided into two Parts as the foregoing, which notwithstanding is but one Minuet Step, as I have said before, separated for the more familiar and easy comprehending thereof; which said Advantage we must lose in this Step, it being so intirely of a Piece that a Division here would be as unnatural, as the aforesaid is natural, as will appear by the Description I am about to give of it, which in the first Place shall be forwards (p); and it is to be performed in this Manner. For Example, the Weight of the Body being upon the left Foot in the first Position, the right disengaged and free (q)2 begins, as aforesaid, in making a Sink and Step forwards directly up the Room (r)2. The Rising or Receiving the Weight upon the Toe or Instep marks the Time to the first Note of the three belonging to the first Measure; the second is in the Fall of the Heel (s)2 and Sink which prepares for the second Step of the four belonging to the Minuet Step, which is made by stepping of the left Foot forwards, in the same Manner as the firs(t)2; and the Rising or Receiving of the Body upon the Instep is to the third and last Note of the first Measure. The third Step of the said four is made with the right Foot stepping a plain straight Step forwards (u)2 upon the Toe to the first Note of the three in the second Measure; the second is in the coming down of the Heel of the said right Foot (v)2 and Sink that prepares for the fourth and last Step which is with the left Foot, in stepping forwards from the Sink aforesaid (w)2; and the Rising or Receiving of the Weight upon the Toe is to the third Note of the second Measure of the Tune, concluding in the same Position from whence it begun (x)2, in Order for a Continuance, which may be either more or less, according to the Largeness or Smallness of the Room in which the Dance is performed.

The two other Ways in which this Step is performed are diametrically or sideways; the first of which (y)2 is in the like Manner as the Minuet Step of two Movements, or One and a Fleuret, to the left Side of the Room, that is to say, the right Foot always crossing behind the left; but as I have already in that Step described the Method in which the Feet are to be stepped, it will be needless at present to say any more than to shew its Difference in counting to the Notes, from the former, which from what I have said above appears to be very different from the Step now treated on, as I shall endeavour to demonstrate by the following Particulars.

In the first Place, we are to suppose a Movement added to the last Step of the Bouree, or second Part of the Minuet Step, and the first Step with the right Foot (z)2 to be made upon the Toe to the first Note; the second is in the coming down of the Heel (a)2 and Sink upon the right Foot, which prepares for the second Step made with the left (b)2, as was explained in the aforesaid, the Rising or Receiving of the Weight upon which marks the third Note of the first Measure, leaving the right Foot, as in the aforesaid, upon the Point (c)2. The Drawing or Bringing of the right Foot pointed, as it crosses behind the left (d)2, is the third Step, and marks Time to the first Note of the second Measure; and the second Note is in the Sink upon the said right Foot, preparing for the fourth and last Step that is made, in rising and stepping sideways from the said Sink upon the left Foot (e)2, to the third Note, concluding in the first Position (f)2 as at commencing.

The next Way of performing this Step only differs from the foregoing, in that, instead of the right or beginning Foot's making the first Step behind, as in the last, it is here made before (g)2, from whence it is called before and behind; and this crossing or stepping of the Foot before renders the Step much more agreeable and fuller of Variety than the aforesaid, arising by Reason of the Twists and Turns the Body naturally gives and receives in the Performance thereof.

But since this Step is much more used, in the Dancing of a Minuet, than the aforesaid, I shall endeavour to give as plain a Description of it as possible; in order to which I shall not only repeat the Stepping or Motion of the Feet, but also suppose, instead of two Bars or Measures to a Step in the Minuet, as in the aforesaid, only one Bar or Measure, which in Effect is the same Thing; for what matters it, whether we count three twice over, or six but once; or whether the half Time is beat to one, two, three, or to four, five, six, which last Method, in my humble Opinion, I take to be much more familiar and easy to be comprehended than the other, in that there is not any Repetition of the first or second Measure; but, however that be, I am sure, it will afford a greater Variety, and possibly may inform some of what, perhaps, they were ignorant of before.

But to proceed in the Description of the Step now treated on: For Instance, the Weight and Position, as aforesaid (h)2, facing either to the upper or lower End of the Room, it begins in making a Sink and Step sideways, with the right Foot crossing directly before the left (i)2 to the same Side of the Room, and producing a Twist or Turn of the Body towards the said Step (j) which receives the Weight upon the Toe, marking Time to the first of the above-mentioned Notes. The second is in the coming down of the right Heel, in the third Position before the left (k)2 and Sink for the succeeding Step, which is made by stepping the left Foot, open off sideways from the right on which the Body is, to the left Side of the Room (l)2; the Rising or Receiving of the Body either upon the Toe or Heel marks the third Note, leaving the Toe of the right Foot upon the Point (m)2, in the same Place the Body was before the second Step was made. In the Stepping of the left Foot last mentioned it is to be observed, that the Body is convey'd or rather, more properly speaking, makes a becoming Feint in the Air not much unlike that made in the Minuet Step of One, and a Fleuret to the right, only there the Bend or Sway the Body makes in the Air was to the right (n)2 upon the Half Coupee, or first of the four Steps which compose the Minuet Step; but here it is upon the second to the left, and the Look or Turn of the Head, which in the former was to the left, is in this to the right (o)2: The Toe, I say, being left pointed, as aforesaid, makes the third Step in the Minuet, by being drawn pointed crossing behind the left Foot, and receives the Body in a Twist upon the fourth Note or half Time, as above (p)2. The fifth Note is in the Sink that prepares for the last Step of the four which compose the Step we now treat of, and is made in like Manner as the second Step with the left Foot to the third Note, in rising and stepping open off sideways (q)3 from the Sink aforesaid upon the left Toe to the sixth and last Note, except that the right Toe is not left pointed as in the former, but ends in the first Position as at Beginning (r)3; and the last Method of counting the Notes or Time to the Step will bear, as well throughout all the Minuet Steps before described as the present.

Having explain'd the Minuet Steps which form the Circle of this Dance, I shall next take Notice of some of the most remarkable Steps used, by Way of Embroidery or farther Grace thereto, as the Hop, Double Bouree, or Fleuret advancing or in the same Place, Balance, &c.

(q) See the Characters of this Step in the Plate marked O, Number I. Table the second.

(r) See the first Figure in Plate I, Book I.     (s) See the second Figure in Plate IX, Book I.     (t) See the second Figure in Plate I, Book I.     (u) See the first Figure in Plate IX, Book I.

(v) See the second Figure in Plate IX, Book I.     (w) See the first Figure in the same Plate.     (x) See the first Figure in Plate I, Book I.      See the Gentleman and Lady in Plate VI.

(y) See the Characters of this Step in the second Table of the Plate marked O, Number II.     (z) See the first Figure in Plate I, Book I. For the Action or Posture of the Body see the Gentleman and Lady in Plate VI.     (a) See in some Measure the second Figure in Plate VI. Book I.     (b) See the second Figure in Plate I, Book aforesaid. Action as at beginning.     (c) See the first Figure in Plate XI, Book I. Action the same.     (d) See the second Figure in Plate VI. Book I.     (e) See the first Figure in the same Plate.     (f) See the first Figure in Plate XI, Book I.

(g) See the first Figure in Plate I, Book I.     2 See the Characters of this Step in the second Table of the Plate marked O, Number III.     (h) See the second Figure in Plate XI. Book aforesaid.     (i) See the first Figure in Plate IV, Book I.     (k) See in some Degree the first Figure in Plate VI, Book I.     (l) See the second Figure in Plate VI, Book aforesaid.     (m) See the second Figure in Plate XI, Book I.     (n) See in some Measure the first Figure in Plate VI, the same Book.     (o) See the first Figure in Plate I, Book I.

(p) See the Characters of this Step in the second Table of the Plate marked O, Number I. A Sink and Rise must be supposed.

(q)2 See the first Figure in Plate I.     (r)2 See the second Figure in Plate IX. in some Measure.     (s)2 See the second Figure in Plate I.     (t)2 See the first Figure in Plate IX, Book I.     (u)2 See the second Figure in Plate IX.     (v)2 See the second Figure in Plate I.     (w)2 See the first Figure in Plate IX.     (x)2 See the first Figure in Plate I.     (y)2 See the Characters of this Step in the second Table of the Plate marked O, Number IV.

(z)2 See in some Measure the second Figure in Plate XI.     (a)2 See the first Figure in Plate VI.     (b)2 See in some Measure the first Figure of Plate VI.     (c)2 See the second Figure in Plate IV.     (d)2 See the second Figure in Plate XI.     (e)2 See in some Degree the first Figure in Plate VI.     (f)2 See the first Figure in Plate I, Book I.     (g)2 See the Characters of this Step in the second Table of the Plate marked O, Number V.

(h)2 See the first Figure in Plate I, Book I.     (i)2 See the first Figure in Plate XI, Book I.     (j) See in some Measure the Twist or Turn of the Body in the said Figure.     (k)2 See the second Figure in Plate V, Book I.     (l)2 See the first Figure in Plate VI, Book the same.     (m)2 See the second Figure in Plate VI, Book I.     (n)2 See in some Measure the Sway or Twist of the Body in the first Figure of Plate XI, Book I.

(o)2 See also in some Degree the Twist or Sway of the Body in the second Figure of Plate XI, Book I.     (p)2 See the second Figure in Plate XI, Book I.     (q)3 See in some Measure the first Figure in Plate VI, Book aforesaid.     (r)3 See the first Figure in Plate I, Book I.

CHAP. II.
Of the HOP in the MINUET.

THE Hop in the Minuet needs little farther Explanation, since it has been already described in the Rigadoon Hop of two Springs; I shall therefore refer to that, because it is the very same as the Hop under Consideration, only, when performed in a Minuet, there must be a Bound added and a different Method in counting of the Notes; for, instead of performing the first and second Springs to one Bar or Measure, as in the aforesaid, they are divided, that is to say, the first Spring or Hop is to the first Bar of the Minuet Tune, and the next Spring and the Bound which is added are to the second. They are all here to be reckoned but as one Step , which is in its Performance thus: For Example, the Weight and Position being as aforesaid (s), the Spring is made in like Manner upon the first Note; but, instead of the right or advanced Foot's being set down upon the second Note, it is now put down to the third (t), the second being counted in the Progress the right Foot made in the Air, concluding one half of the Hop in the Sink upon the aforesaid third Note, that prepares for the second Spring which is made, as in the aforesaid, to the fourth or beginning Note of the second Measure by taking of the left Foot up from the Floor into the third Position behind the right and advanced Foot upon which the Weight of the Body now is (u). The left being upon the Point and at Liberty makes the Bound, as was shewn in treating of that Step, the Sink or Preparative for which marks the fifth Note; and the sixth is in the Spring or Bound upon the left Foot, by rising or springing off from the right on which the Weight rested before the said Spring was made, concluding as at firs(v).

This Hop in the Minuet may be performed backwards, in the same Manner as described forwards, except that, instead of commencing with the right Foot from the third Position behind, it must be from the same Position before (w); but the rest being intirely the same there needs nothing more to be said of it here, since it has been fully explained in the Rigadoon Step of two Springs forwards, by which it may be easily understood how it is performed backwards (x).

 See the Characters of this Step in the third Table of the Plate marked O, Number I.     (s) See the first Figure in Plate V, Book I.     (t) See the second Figure in Plate IX, Book I.     (u) See the second Figure in Plate V, Book aforesaid.     (v) See the first Figure in Plate V. Book I.     (w) See the second Figure in Plate IV, Book I.     (x) See the Characters of this Step in the third Table of the Plate marked O, Number II.

CHAP. III.
Of the Double BOUREE upon the same Place.

THIS Step is taken from the third Position before and ends in the same behind, answering to two Measures of the Tune, the same as the Minuet Step, and is here esteemed but as one Step; tho' it is otherwise when it is performed in a Saraband, or such like slow Movement, for then one of them alone is to a Measure without any Dependence on the other, beginning with either the right or left Foot, as Occasion offers. But it is not so in the Minuet, for the first Bouree or Fleuret must commence with the right Foot, as an Equivalent to the Half Coupee; and the second Bouree to the remaining Fleuret or second Part of the Minuet Step, as usual, with the left Foot, compleating six Steps in the same Space of Time as the foregoing Minuet Step of four, and consequently much swifter in its Performance , which is thus: The Weight of the Body being upon the left Foot in the third Position, the right inclosed before it and disengaged (y) begins in making a Sink or Bend of both Knees, from whence the right in rising steps directly open off sideways, either more or less according to the Tune: For Example, if to the abovesaid slow Time, it may then be the Length of a Step in walking, or of a Point in the March (z); but not so now, by Reason of the Quickness of the Tune. Therefore, about half the Length of the said Step, receiving the Weight of the Body upon the Instep or Toe of the right Foot to the first Note, the left on which the Weight was remains in the same Place, only the Toe is pointed (a); the second Note is in the Raising of the said left Toe and setting down or receiving of the Weight upon the left Heel, and also leaving the right Foot upon the Point where it marked the first Note(b); from whence it is drawn swift into the third Position behind the left (c), at the same Time pressing to the Toe strong to the Floor, the receiving of the Weight upon which is to the third Note, concluding the first Bouree and Measure in a smooth easy Sink upon the right Foot, and bending the left the same Instant the right receives the Body in order to begin the second Bouree.

The second Bouree is like the aforesaid, in rising from the Sink by stepping of the left Foot off sideways to the same Hand (d), receiving the Weight upon the Toe or Instep to the fourth Note and Beginning of the second Measure of the Tune, and leaving the right Toe upon the Point as aforesaid (e); the fifth is in the Raising the said Toe and setting down or receiving the Weight upon the right Heel, leaving the left Toe pointed, as in the first Bouree, or where it marked the fourth Note (f); from whence it is drawn swift into the third Position behind the right Foot (g), pressing the Toe strong to the Floor at the same Instant; the receiving of the Weight upon which is to the sixth Note, and concludes the second Measure of the Tune in the same Step of the Dance, in the Position as at commencing.

It must be observed, that if this Step is performed twice over, as in that under Consideration, the Sink falls upon the sixth Note of the second Bouree, the same as upon the third in the first.

Having described the foregoing Step upon the same Place, it may perhaps be acceptable to the Reader, if I add thereto the said Bouree running or flying along the Room (h), it being often used in Dancing of a Minuet by those who have attained to such a Perfection in this Art, as to render them capable of judging the most proper Places of making use of it; and it only differs from the former by advancing, instead of being upon the same Spot of Ground.

The running Bouree may be performed either from the Position treated on in the foregoing Step, or from the first as Occasion offers; but I shall at present only explain it from the latter, that is to say, the first Position: The Weight being upon the left Foot, as in the aforesaid (i), it begins by making a Sink and Step with the right Foot forwards (j). The Rise or Receiving of the Body upon the Toe marks the Time or first Note; the second Step, made with the left Foot (k) plain upon the Toe, marks the same Note; and the third Step, with the right Foot (l) plain in the like Manner upon the Toe, marks the third and last Note, concluding the first Bouree in the same Position upon the right Foot (m), in a Readiness to begin the second Bouree. The latter Bouree commences by sinking upon the third Note and Step of the former, from whence it steps forwards, as the aforesaid (n), the Rise of which upon the left Toe is to the fourth Note; the second Step plain with the right Foot (o) marks the fifth in the like Manner, and the third Step plain with the left Foot (p) the sixth; and it concludes in the first Position as at firs(q), from whence it may be continued.

 See the Characters of this Step in the third Table of the Plate marked O, Number III.     (y) See the second Figure in Plate IV, Book I.     (z) See the second Figure in Plate VI, Book aforesaid.

(a) See the first Figure in Plate VI, Book I.     (b) See the second Figure in Plate the aforesaid.     (c) See the first Figure in Plate IV, Book I.     (d) See in some Respects the first Figure in Plate VI, Book I.     (e) See the second Figure in the same Plate.     (f) See the first Figure in the same Plate.     (g) See the second Figure in Plate IV, Book I.     (h) See the Characters of this Step in the third Table of the Plate marked O, Number IV.

(i) See the first Figure in Plate I, Book I.     (j) See in some Measure the second Figure in Plate IX, Book I.     (k) See the first Figure in the same Plate.     (l) See the second Figure in the same Plate.     (m) See the second Figure in Plate I, Book I.     (n) See in some Measure the first Figure in Plate IX, Book I.     (o) See the second Figure in the same Plate.     (p) See the first Figure in Plate IX, as aforesaid.     (q) See the first Figure in Plate I, Book I.

CHAP. IV.
Of the BALANCE.

THE Balance is compos'd of two plain Steps, to which are added two Movements or Sinkings and Risings commencing from two different Positions, namely, the first and second Position or Point, as in the Beginning of a March; and the said Steps and Movements are equal in Value to one Minuet Step, and fill up two Measures of the Tune the same as in that (r).

The Balance is performed thus: For Instance, the Weight of the Body being in the first Position, as above, upon the left Foot (s), the right disengaged makes the first Movement and Step by sinking or Bending of the Knees, and stepping with the right Foot directly opening off sideways (t), facing either to the upper or lower Part of the Room, as it shall happen. The Rising or Receiving of the Weight upon the Toe or Heel marks Time to the first Note; and, if upon the Toe, the second is in the Coming down of the Heel (u); or, if made upon the Heel, it is in the tight Holding of the Knee after the Rise to the first Note is made, leaving the left Toe upon the Point (v), on the very same Place the Body was at the Beginning of the Step (w). The third Note, which concludes the first Measure and Part of the Step, is in the Sink that prepares for the second Step of the Balance, namely, with the left Foot from the Point aforesaid, in which it touches the Heel of the right Foot (x) and then steps open off sideways (y), receiving the Weight of the Body, either upon the Toe or Heel to the fourth Note, in the same Place from whence it was brought from the Point. The Coming down or Fall of the left Heel is to the fifth Note, if the Rise be made upon the Toe; if not, in the tight Holding of the Knee, as aforesaid, ending in the first Position, as at Beginning (z). The sixth Note is in the Sink or Preparation for the succeeding Step, whether it be the same or any other; and, when this Step is performed with a quarter or half Turn, as it frequently is, it must always be turning to the left Hand, if commencing with the right Foot, as it does in the present.

(r) See the Characters of this Step in the third Table of the Plate marked O, Number V.     (s) See the first Figure in Plate I, Book I.     (t) See in some Degree the second Figure in Plate VI, Book I.     (u) See the first Figure in the same Plate.     (v) See the same Figure in Plate VI, Book I.     (w) See the second Figure in Plate VI.     (x) See the second Figure in Plate I, Book I.     (y) See the second Figure in Plate VI, Book I.

(z) See the first Figure in Plate I, Book I.

CHAP. V.
Of the two COULEES or MARCHES.

TO perform two Marches, instead of a Minuet Step, in a suitable and proper Place in Dancing of a Minuet, I take to be an agreeable Variation or Change; but, as the Manner of performing a March has been already shewn, I shall refer to what has been before observed upon that Step, and only take Notice, that it must begin with the right Foot to the first Measure, and with the left to the second. The first of these is to be made upon One, Two, and Three; and the second upon Four, Five, and six, in the like Method as already explained in the Step of this Name (a).

(a) See the Characters of this Step in the third Table of the Plate marked O, Number VI.

CHAP. VI.
Of the SLIP behind and HALF COUPEE forwards to the right and left Hands, each to a MINUET STEP.

THIS Step is composed of three plain Steps, as the Bouree, which are generally done to a Measure, as that, in other Dances; but otherwise here, in that it is equal in Value to a Step in the Minuet, and consequently, like that, takes up two Measures or Bars of the Tune (b). It is performed facing either, up or down the Room, as in Dancing of the Minuet it shall fall out, but usually to our Partner, and may be taken from the third or first Position: For Instance, the Weight being upon the left Foot, with the right at Liberty resting upon the Heel of the said left Foot, as in the March (c); or, if from the first, instead of behind, as we have observed, it is equal to the Foot on which the Body is, facing to the upper End of the Room, which shall here suffice as an Example (d), and begins the Slip, or first and second Steps of the three that compose this Step, by making a Sink and Step sideways open off to the right Side of the Room (e), rising upon the Toe or Heel to the first Note, and leaving the left Foot on which the Weight was (f) upon the Point in the same Place (g). It rests there, during the counting the second Note; and the third is in the swift Drawing of the said left Foot pointed cross behind the right (h), concluding the second Step of the three to the first Measure, in receiving the Body in an agreeable Twist or Turn (i) with both Knees bent; that is to say, in the crossing, as aforesaid, the left Shoulder, in bringing forward before the right, is more raised by the lowering or falling of the other.

The first Movement being thus ended, with the Knees bent upon the third Note, in Order to the Performance of the Coupee, or second Part of this Step, which is made to the second Measure by rising from the Sink aforesaid and stepping of the right Foot forwards (j), the Rising or Receiving of the Body on the Toe or Heel marks the fourth or beginning Note of the second Measure; and the fifth is in the Coming down of the said Heel to the Floor, if the Rise was upon the Instep in the firs(k) or third Position (l), with the left Foot at Liberty the same as the right at commencing. The sixth Note is in the Sink which prepares for the same Step with the other Foot; and you are likewise to observe that, in the Performance of the Half Coupee or second Part of the foregoing Step, the Body returns from the said Twist in bringing the right Shoulder, which was behind and somewhat inclined downwards, to be equally forwards to the left and the same in Height: For Example, when we stand in a natural and erect Posture.

But to return to the Slip to the left Hand, which is the very same as to the right already explained, it begins in rising from the Sink aforesaid, stepping open off sideways to the left Hand (m); and the rising upon the Toe or Heel of the left Foot marks the first Note, leaving the right Toe upon the Point (n), as the foregoing did the left, making a Pause or Rest whilst the second Note is counted. The third Note is in the drawing or crossing of the right Foot behind the left (o), receiving the Body in the aforesaid Twis(p) and bending of both the Knees, in which the right Shoulder is raised in advancing, as in the foregoing, to the right Hand the left Shoulder (q) was on concluding one half of the Step to the first Measure of the two; and the second is in the Half Coupee that is made as in the aforesaid, by rising from the Sink which fell upon the third Note and stepping of the left Foot forwards (r). The Rise Receiving of the Weight upon the Toe is to the fourth Note of the next Measure; the fifth is in the Falling of the Heel (s), and the sixth in the Sink for the succeeding Step, concluding upon the left Foot, as at beginning, in one of the said Positions (t).

Having now shewn the Method of performing this Step in Dancing of a Minuet, both to the right and left Hands (as indeed it cannot be done to one without the other by Reason they both change the Feet but as one Minuet Step, two Bourees, or two Marches) since this Step is much used in Tunes of common and triple Time, as Rigadoons, Bourees, Sarabands, and Passacailles, &c. and also, instead of being performed to two Measures, as in this Dance, is often found to one Bar only (u) and of Consequence varies in the Method of counting from the aforesaid, it will not be improper to say something of it here, especially as it has hitherto been omitted: For Example, in Bourees and Rigadoons the Rise of the first Movement marks Time to the first Note, as in the foregoing; but the second differs in this that, instead of the Toe's being pointed during the counting of the second Note, it is drawn swift behind the Foot on which the Weight is full upon the said Note, receiving the Body in the Twis(v) and Bending of the Knees, as aforesaid. The Rise of the Half Coupee, which in the foregoing was to the second Measure, is now to the third Note, and the fourth Note falls in the Sink for the succeeding Step; or if done to two Measures here, as in the Minuet, then, instead of counting only upon the Point, the second Note before its drawing behind the third must also be reckoned, immediately upon which the Slip is made, as in the foregoing, to the fourth and last Note. The Rise to the Half Coupee marks Time to the first Note of the second Measure; the second is in the Fall of the Heel, the third in the Rest the Body makes upon it, and the fourth in the Sink for the succeeding Step.

But if to the above Tunes of triple Time it be performed to two Bars, it is much the same, as in the Minuet, only more solemn and grave, and the Foot that is upon the Point follows the Rise in a slow Progress, pressing the Floor upon the second Note and Beginning of the third; but before the Expiration thereof it is brought swift behind the Foot on which the Weight is, concluding the first Measure as in the Minuet; and the Half Coupee is to the second Measure the same only, as I have said, more grave and slow.

When this Step is performed to one Measure, as in the aforesaid Tunes of triple Time, the easy Rise from the first Step made open off sideways is upon the first Note; and the Point or second Step attends the said Rise in a slow Progress, during the counting of the second Note, and then is drawn swift behind, before the Expiring of the said Note in a full Sink or Bending of the Knees; and the third is in the Rise of the Half Coupee made from thence by stepping forwards, as aforesaid, half of which is borrowed in the Sink for the next Step in the Movements last mentioned. This Step is sometimes done to both Hands, as in the Minuet; but it is often found single.

(b) See the Characters of this Step in the third Table of the Plate marked O, Number VII.     (c) See the first Figure in Plate V, Book I.     (d) See the first Figure in Plate I, Book I.     (e) See the second Figure in Plate VI, Book I.     (f) See the first Figure in Plate I, Book I.     (g) See the first Figure in Plate VI, Book I.     (h) See the first Figure in Plate XI, Book I.

(i) See the Contrast or Sway in the first Figure of Plate XI, Book I.     (j) See in some Measure the second Figure in Plate IX, Book I.     (k) See the second Figure in Plate I, Book aforesaid.     (l) See the second Figure in Plate V, Book I.     (m) See in some Measure the first Figure in Plate VI, Book I.     (n) See the second Figure in the same Plate.     (o) See the second Figure in Plate XI, Book I.     (p) See the Sway or Twist in the second Figure of Plate XI, aforesaid.

(q) See the first Figure in the Plate XI, Book I.     (r) See the first Figure in Plate IX, Book I.     (s) See the first Figure in Plate I, Book I.     (t) See the first Figure in Plate I, or first Figure of Plate V, Book I.     (u) See the Characters of this Step in the third Table of the Plate marked O, Number VIII.     (v) See the first and second Figures in Plate XI, Book I.

CHAP. VI.
Of DANCING the MINUET in general.

HAving explained the different Ways in which the Steps of a Minuet are to be perform'd, I shall now say something of that Dance in general and proceed to shew, how the said Steps form the Circle or Figure thereof by linking them one to another in Order as they fall; and in the first Place observe, that the Minuet now in Use is compos'd of three different Steps that form the Figure of it, which is mostly circular or in the Shape of an S reversed or an Z (w), upon which said S or Z the abovenamed Steps present themselves, as follows: That is to say, after making our Honour or Courtesy to the Presence (x) or upper Part of the Room in which we dance, and afterwards to our Partner (y), the Dance begins directly. Instead of stepping back again into your Place, as the Custom was formerly, and also instead of standing to wait the Close or Ending of a Strain of the Tune, begin upon the first Time that offers, in that it is much more genteel and shews the Dancer's Capacity and Ear in distinguishing of the Time, and from thence begets himself a good Opinion from the Beholders, who are apt to judge favourably of the following Part of his Performance; whereas the attending the concluding or finishing of a Strain has the contrary Effect.

However the latter is by much the safer Way for those whose Ear is not very good, the concluding of a Strain of the Tune being much more remarkable than the middle Part; for, if they should happen to begin out of Time, it is a thousand to one if they recover it throughout the Dance. But on the other Hand, had they waited a remarkable Place of the Tune, and taken the Time at Beginning, they might have come off with Reputation and Applause; for many dance the Minuet Step in true and regular Time, tho' out of Time to the Music, which is occasioned by not hitting with it right at first; and not being able to recover it afterwards, they dance the whole Minuet out of Time. Their dancing on this Account loses its Effect upon the Beholders; for, if the Steps and the Notes do not perfectly agree, in their performing, one with another, they can produce no Harmony, and if no Harmony, no Pleasure to those they design to entertain.

But to the Step and Figure, as aforesaid, the Honour or Courtesy being made as above, the Lady faces the Gentleman, who, just before the Dance commences, presents his right Hand, or makes a Motion as tho'he would if he was not at too far a Distance, and begins the Dance in making the Half Coupee and Fleuret (and rest of the Steps leading to what I call the Introduction) open off sideways to the right Hand in the Manner already described, facing the Lady or right Side of the Room, who performs the same to the left (1); and in the following Step they return again in two Minuet Steps of three Movements to the left, all behind, the last of which ends to the upper Part of the Room (2) to which both advance in One and a Fleuret (3). About this Time the Gentleman presents his right Hand to the Lady (z) and performs four more of the said Steps (4); the first whereof is either advancing, as the foregoing, or sideways open off to the right Hand facing the Presence or upper End, as aforesaid, the rest turning gradually the same Way, 'till he arrives at the left upper Corner of the Room facing the Bottom thereof (a). During this he hands or introduces the Lady into the Dance in the most agreeable Manner he possibly can, by leading or conducting her in the Circle round him in her Performance of the like Number of Steps (5), that is to say, of One and a Fleuret forwards; and, about the End of the second or third Step after giving Hands, he breaks off or lets go the (9)[(6)] Lady who continues on a Step more to the lower right Corner of the Room, and then makes a Half Coupee and Bouree to the same Hand sideways to the upper End of it (7), provided the Break or Letting go of the Hands was upon the second Step (8), as I have observed; but, if on the third (9), the Half Coupee and Bouree or fourth of the Steps aforesaid is made directly facing the upper Part of the Room (10), as I have said (b), concluding the first Division or Part of the Minuet Dance in the Hat's being put on in a graceful Manner.

There is no general Rule in the Performance of this Dance, as to its Length or Shortness; however I shall reduce and divide it into six Parts or Divisions (c), by Way of Distinction one from another, each consisting of eight Minuet Steps, which to a Minuet Tune of the like Numbers of Bars will answer the first Strain played twice over .

(w) See the second and fifth Divisions of the Plate marked U.     (x) See the Gentleman and Lady in Plate II.     (y) See the Gentleman and Lady in Plate IV.

(1) See the Characters or Steps marked I in Plate IV, or first Division of this Dance in the Plate distinguished by the Letter U, Book II.     (2) See in Plate IV, or first Division of the Plate distinguished by the Letter U, the Steps or Characters marked 2, and 3.     (3) See the Characters or Steps marked 4 in Plate IV. or first Division of the Plate marked U.     (z) See the Gentleman and Lady in Plate V.     (4) See the Characters or Steps marked with the Figures 5, 6, 7, 8, in Plate V, or in the first Division of the Plate marked U on the Man's Side.     (a) See the Gentleman or first Figure in Plate VI.

(5) See the Steps upon the Lady's Tract marked 5, 6, 7, 8, in Plate V, or in the first Division of the Characters or Steps contained in the Plate marked U.     (6) See the Characters or Steps marked 6 and 7 in Plate V, and first Division in Plate marked U.     (7) See the Character or Step marked 8 in Plate V, and Division aforesaid,     (8) See the Character or Step marked 6 upon the Lady's Tract or Figure in Plate V.     (9) See the Character or Step marked 7 in Plate V.     (10) See the Step marked 8.     (b) See the Lady in Plate VI.     (c) See the whole Dance included in the Plate marked U.     () See the Music contain'd in the fourth and fifth Plates or first Division in the Plate marked U.

CHAP. VII.
Of the Figure of S reversed or second Division.

HAving explained the Introduction or first Part of this Dance, I shall now proceed to the second; which in Figure is circular or, as I have said, in the Form of an S reversed, or Z, upon which fall the Steps that adorn this Part of the Dance, and are performed as follows: For Instance, the Gentleman at the upper left Corner of the Room faces the Lady who is at the lower right in the third Position, where the foregoing ended with the right Foot disengaged and inclosed before the left (d), and they commence in performing about four of the Minuet Steps of three Movements before and behind sideways crossing the Room to the left Hand; that is to say, the Gentleman performs to the right Side of the Room and the Lady to the left (1), who by turning a small Matter gradually upon the third and fourth of the said Steps meet in the Middle of the Room facing one another (e), and pass obliquely upon the right Hand of each other; that is, the Lady to the uppermost right Corner, and the Gentleman to the lower left , continuing on the remaining half Circle or Figure in four Minuet Steps of One and a Fleuret forwards (2). The Lady, as I have said, passes on round by the right upper Corner 'till she arrives at the left, looking full to the Bottom of the Room (f).

The last of the foresaid Steps (3) may also be made open off sideways to the right Hand, turning a quarter of a Turn the same Way; that is, the Lady from facing the left Side of the Room (g) turns down it, concluding in the third Position as above. The Gentleman does the same, passing by the lower left Side in his Way to the right, and concludes as aforesaid, only up the Room (h).

But, instead of either of the former Ways, this Part of the Dance is frequently performed in making the first of the four Steps forwards, after passing each other, and then not continuing the remaining Circle on forwards, or to the last One and a Fleuret open off to the right Hand sideways, as before; but instead thereof three of the said Minuet Steps are made directly opening off sideways to the right Hand, by making half a Turn upon the Half Coupee, or Beginning of the first of them, from the upper End of the Room, the rest continuing on to the upper left Side facing the lower End. The Gentleman performs the same Way except that, after the half Turn from the Bottom, he makes the said three Steps to the lower right Side of the Room facing the Lady, or up it, answering the playing of the second Strain of the Tune twice over, 2, which now has been played once through, and concludes the second Division of the Dance; and it is likewise to be observed that, in the Performance of these eight Minuet Steps, the Gentleman and Lady only alternately change Places (k).

(d) See the Gentleman and Lady in Plate VI.     (1) See the Characters or Steps marked 1, 2, 3, 4, in Plate VI.     (e) See the Gentleman and Lady in Plate VII.      See the Tract or Figure in Plate VII, or second Division in Plate U.     (2) See the Characters or Steps marked 5, 6, 7, 8, in Plate VII, or second Division of the Plate marked U.     (f) See the Lady in Plate VIII.     (3) See the Character or Step in Plate XIII, marked 8.     (g) See the Lady and Gentleman in Plate XIII.     (h) See the Gentleman in Plates VII and XIII.

2 See the Music contained in Plates VI and VII, or second Division in the Plate marked U.     (k) See the Gentleman and Lady in Plate VIII.

CHAP. VIII.
Upon PRESENTING the right Arm or third Part.

THE second foregoing Step being explained we enter upon the third, which consists in the Ceremony of presenting or giving the right Hand; and in it there is no small Beauty and Air, as to the graceful and easy raising of it, in Order to take Hands, and also the gentle and natural Fall on Letting them go. As for the Tract or Figure it varies from the former, in its being circular but particularly towards the latter End, upon which Tract the Steps we now treat of are to be performed, as follows: For Example, the Gentleman at the lower Part of the Room on the right Side, and the Lady at the upper left Side, facing each other (l), begin the first Step either obliquely open off sideways to the right Hand, or else instead thereof make four Minuet Steps of three Movements before and behind crossing the Room to the left Hand; that is to say, the Gentleman to the left Side of the Room and the Lady to the right(6), turning a little upon the third and fourth Minuet Steps, so as to face each other near the Middle of the Room (m). Instead of passing forwards to the cross Corners, as in the second Division, they turn a quarter off to the upper and lower Ends of the Room upon the last Movement of the fourth Minuet Step: For Instance, the Gentleman to the Presence or upper Part, and the Lady to the lower (n), to which each advance pursuing their respective Tracts in taking as large a Circumference, as the joining of Hands will admit.

In performing the four remaining Minuet Steps forwards (7), which are of One and a Fleuret, the right Arm is to be raised in the Manner before observed, about the turning off or ending of the fourth Minuet Step of three Movements (8), as a Sign or Warning to the Lady of the Gentleman's presenting his Hand, which is given by an easy Bending of the Elbow before it is presented near the End of the fifth Minuet Step, continuing on round the sixth and seventh Minuet Steps until the Gentleman faces the upper right Corner of the Room and the Lady the lower left. About this Time the Hands are let go and the Arm falls gently to the Side, whilst the eighth Step is perform'd obliquely off sideways to the right Hand (o) and lower right Corner of the Room, the Gentleman's Head being a little turn'd looking upon the Lady who does the like to the upper left Corner, concluding in the third Position as at commencing this Division, only much nigher to each other, and the Shoulders pointing to the upper and lower right and left Corners of the Room, as was already shewn in the Explanation of this Step; which Part or Division of the Dance, as here treated on, falls upon the first Strain of the Tune, the second Time of playing, and answers to the Strain twice over ().

As for the Taking off or Keeping on the Hat I shall not take upon me to determine, leaving it to every one's Choice to act as they shall think most agreeable, since it intirely depends upon Fashion and Fancy; but, as I have a Right as well as others humbly to offer my Thoughts on this Point, I shall declare in Favour of the former, in that it has the Appearance of much more Complaisance and Air than Keeping the Hat upon the Head, which in my humble Opinion seems more flat and disrespectful; and the Taking off and Putting on of the Hat with a good Air likewise gives a singular Grace to the Dance, which is all lost by its remaining upon the Head.

But if it should be objected, that it is inconvenient and troublesome to take off the Hat with the right Hand, by Reason it must be changed to the left before the right can be at Liberty to present to the Lady: I answer, it is easy to be done; or it may be taken off with the left Hand as well as the right, and then once changing will serve, which may be upon the letting go or breaking off Hands, that is to say, in making One and a Fleuret open off to the right Hand. The said Step finishes the Part of the Dance now treated of; and theHat is to be taken off with the left Hand on giving the right falling naturally and slow down to the Side, and holding the Hat at Arms Length during the Time of changing, as was above observed.

(l) See the Plate aforesaid. [Plate VIII]

(6) See the Characters or Steps marked 1, 2, 3, 4, in Plate VIII, or third Division of Plate U.     (m) See the Gentleman and Lady in Plate XI.     (n) See the Gentleman and Lady in Plate IX.     (7) See the Characters or Steps in the said Plate IX marked 5, 6, 7, 8, or third Division of Plate U.     (8) See the last Step in Plate VIII, marked 4, and first of Plate IX.     (o) See the Gentleman and Lady in Plate VIII.

 See the Music to the Steps in Plates VIII and IX.

CHAP. IX.
Of the FOURTH DIVISION or PRESENTING of the left ARM.

AS the last explained treated of the presenting or giving the right Hand, the present or fourth Division is upon presenting of the left, which in its Performance is thus: For Instance, being upon the left of each other, the Hat in the right Hand, the Position and Presence of the Body the same as at the Beginning of the third Part, only, as I have said on the Conclusion thereof, something nighr together, and the Body a little more turned to the right, the Gentleman who faces the upper Part will be to the same Side of the Room, but the Lady, as she faces the lower Part, is to the left (p); to both of which each advance in eight Minuet Steps, returning upon the same Circle or Tract that conducted them hither, which is enlarged by the aforesaid turning (9) and making the first Minuet Step which is of One and a Fleuret forwards; and on the commencing thereof the left Arm is raised (q) in a slow and easy Motion, in Order to be presented or given, which is much upon the second Minuet Step by a gentle bending of the Elbow, as in the aforesaid.

But, instead of the second's being a Minuet Step of One and a Fleuret, you may make the Minuet Hop, which, if well executed, is an agreeable Variation proceeding round in the Continuation of three Minuet Steps more of One and a Fleuret, at the full Extent or Length of the Arms, 'till arrived very near the Place of setting out, that is to say, whilst the Gentleman faces to the upper right Corner of the Room and the Lady the lower left (10); upon which Hands are broke off or let go, and, extended as they are, gently fall to their proper Places. The Hat is put on again with the right Hand, upon the Ceremony of the Arms being ended; and the three remaining Minuet Steps are performed obliquely open off to the right Hand sideways (11), as upon the last Step of the preceding Division (r), or directly across the Room to the right and left Sides, concluding in the Position and Place from whence the third Division of three Movements to the left begun; or, instead of the eighth and last's being made, as I just observed the Double Bouree was performed, it would fall very naturally here and be no small Embellishment to this Part of the Dance, or any other Steps to fill up the Time (12). I mean when performed by such as have arrived at a Capacity of doing it perfectly, otherwise it is better omitted; but nothing can be more graceful than the former, as appears from what has been said in the Explanation of that Step; and it affords a farther Variety, in that the Tune has now been twice played through on the Conclusion of the Division or Part now treated of (s), which was to the second Strain both Times over (t).

(p) See the Gentleman and Lady in the Plates VIII and X.     (9) See the Steps in Plate X, marked 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or the fourth Division of Plate U.     (q) See the Gentleman and Lady in Plate X.

(10) See the Steps marked 3, 4, 5, on the different Tracts in Plate X, or in the fourth Division of Plate U.     (11) See the Characters or Steps marked 6, 7, 8, in Plate X, or fourth Division of Plate U.     (r) See the Action of the Gentleman and Lady in Plate VIII.     (12) See the Characters of this Step in the third Table of the Plate marked O, Number 3.     (s) See the Music to the first, second, third, and fourth Divisions in Plate U.     (t) See the Music to the Part of the Dance contained in Plate X.

CHAP. X.
Of the fifth DIVISION or second S.

AS this Part of the Dance has been already explained by the second Division, which in Figure and Step is altogether the same, except that, instead of the Gentleman's being at the upper End of the Room as in the foregoing Part, the Lady is now there and the Gentleman at the lower (u), from whence both commence as in the aforesaid, I might here refer to what I formerly said, in that a farther Explanation seems entirely needless, since it will easily be comprehended from the former as some may imagine, it being no more than to perform the said Steps in the Method above described; yet, for the better understanding thereof, if I accompany the Dancer or Reader through this Part of the Dance a second Time, it will not I hope be thought a tedious or unnecessary Repetition. The Gentleman and Lady, situated as was already observed, both commence in performing the said four Minuet Steps of three Movements before and behind sideways crossing the Room to the left Hand; but the Gentleman now, instead of moving to the right Side of the Room, as in the second Division, moves to the left, the Lady doing the same to the right (1); and as I have said, by turning a small Matter gradually upon the third and fourth of the said Minuet Steps, they meet in the Middle of the Room, as in the aforesaid, facing one another (v) and pass obliquely upon the right Hand of each other, viz. the Gentleman to the upper right Corner and the Lady to the lower left, continuing on the remaining half Circle or Figure in four Minuet Steps of One and a Fleuret as aforesaid forwards (2), the Gentleman, as I have said, passing on round by the right upper Corner until arrived at the left facing down the Room (w).

The last of the said four Steps may also be made open off sideways to the right Hand, turning a quarter of a Turn the same Way as the Gentleman from facing the left Side of the Room () down it, and finishing in the third Position (); and the Lady the like, passing by the lower left in her Way to the right Side and concluding, as aforesaid, only up the Room (*).

But, instead of either of the foregoing Ways, this Part of the Dance is usually perform'd in making the first of the four Steps forwards after passing each other (4), and then not continuing the remaining on a Circle forwards, or to the last One and a Fleuret open off to the right Hand sideways, as before (5), but instead thereof three of the said Minuet Steps are performed directly opening off sideways to the right Hand in making half a Turn upon the Half Coupee, or Beginning of the first of them, from the upper End of the Room, the remaining continuing on to the upper left Side facing the lower End. The Lady does the same, except that after the half Turn from the Bottom she performs the said three Steps to the lower right Side of the Room, looking up it or to the Gentleman; and, having again alternately changed Places as before, the Gentleman is left at the upper left Corner or Side of the Room and the Lady at the lower right (*), concluding to the first Strain of the Tune twice over which is now begun a third Time.(*)

(u) See Plate VIII.     (1) See the Characters or Steps mark'd 1, 2, 3, 4, in the said Plate VIII, or fifth Division in Plate U.     (v) See the Gentleman and Lady in Plate XI.

(2) See the Characters or Steps mark'd 5, 6, 7, and 8, in Plate XI, or the fifth Division of Plate U.     (w) See Plate VI.      See the Action in Plate XIV, and also the Character or Step marked 8.     () See in some Measure Plate VI.     (*) See the aforesaid Plates IV, and XIV.     (4) See the Character or Step in Plate XIV, marked 5.     (5) See the Steps or Characters in Plates XIII or XIV, mark'd 6, 7, and 8.     (*) See the Gentleman and Lady in Plate VI.     (*) See the fifth Division of Plate U. or the under written Music to Plates VIII, and XI.

CHAP. XI.
Of the sixth DIVISION or PRESENTING of both ARMS and Conclusion.

THE sixth and concluding Part of the Minuet Dance principally consists in the Ceremony of presenting or giving both Hands, as the third and fourth Parts did in giving the single Arm, and they are much alike in Figure and Form: For Instance, the Gentleman and Lady facing each other in the third Position, where we left them in the three last explained (x) Minuet Steps, begin in the Performance of the like Number of Movements sideways each to the left Hand, the Gentleman to the right Side of the Room and the Lady to the left; and, near the End or Finishing of the said three Minuet Steps, both turn off to the same Hand to which they were performed , as in the fourth Minuet Step of three Movements belonging to the third Division, opening gracefully in Order to enlarge the Figure and present both Hands (1) as the other was for One, only making the fourth Minuet Step which is of One and a Fleuret forwards to that Part of the Room to which the Presence of the Body is directed; that is to say, the Gentleman to the lower and the Lady to the upper (y), upon the Beginning of which said Step both Arms are raised in the easy Gracefulness observed in the single Arm, as the Sign or Warning of giving both Hands, (z) which is done upon the commencing of the fifth or succeeding Step.

In this Part of the Dance there may be a Minuet Hop, instead of One and a Fleuret, continuing on round upon the right Side of each other, until the Gentleman faces the upper Part of the Room and the Lady the lower (a), which will be about the Conclusion of the sixth Minuet Step; during which the Arms are raised near the Height of the Shoulder, and the Elbows a little elevated or raised forming a Circle or whole Round.

In this Posture the seventh and eighth Minuet Steps are also performed, the Gentleman making One and a Fleuret backwards, or rather a small Matter to the right, whilst the Lady performs the same Steps forwards (2), upon which the Hands are let go; and the Gentleman, in making the Slip or Beginning of the eighth Minuet Step, takes off his Hat with the right Hand which falls gently down to the Side, as aforesaid, in Order to make the Reverence or Bow to the Presence or upper End of the Room, which is upon the third and fourth Minuet Step. At the same Instant the Lady coupees to the Gentleman in a half Turn to the right from the lower Part of the Room facing up it, and leaves the right Foot upon the Point 2 finishing the remaining half of the Step and Dance in the Reverence or Courtesy made in drawing the said right Foot behind the left, on which the Body rests, into the third or fifth Position (); after which the Honour or Respect is made to each other and the Ceremony ended (b), as also the Tune which has now been played three Times over (*).

As to the Hat I should rather approve of its not being taken off here 'till the breaking off or letting go of both Hands; however this is likewise submitted to the Dancer's Choice, as well as the Presenting of the single Arm, whether he takes it off, or keeps it on, throughout the whole Dance.

(x) See the Gentleman and Lady in Plate VI pursuing their different Tracts or Figures to the Steps marked 1, 2, 3, and 4.      See the Character or Step in the sixth Division of Plate U marked 3.     (1) See more particularly the Steps marked 1, 2, 3, and 4, in the sixth Division of Plate U.     (y) See the Gentleman and Lady in Plate XII.     (z) See the Action in the Figures of Plate XII.

(a) See in some Measure the Gentleman and Lady in Plate IX.     (2) See the Steps marked 5, 6, 7, and 8, in Plate XII, or Steps with the same Figures in the sixth Division of Plate U.     ()2 See the second Figure in Plate VI, Book I.     () See the first Figure in Plate IV, or second of Plate XI, Book I.     (b) See the second, third, and fourth Plates.     (*) See the Music to the Steps of Plates VI and XII, or last Division of Plate U.

CHAP. XII.
Of the MISTAKES in DANCING of a MINUET, with their OCCASIONS and RULES to prevent them.

IN the foregoing Chapters I have shewn the Method or Manner in which the Minuet Dance is to be performed, when reduced to a just and regular Dance; yet in Effect it is no more than a voluntary or extemporary Piece of Performance, as has already been hinted, in Regard there is no limited Rule, as to its Length or Shortness, or in Relation to the Time of the Tune, since it may begin upon any that offers, as well within a Strain as upon the first Note or commencing thereof. It is the very same with Respect to its ending, for it matters not whether it breaks off upon the End of the first Strain of the Tune, the second, or in the Middle of either of them, provided it be in Time to the Music; but nevertheless there are frequently Mistakes, in the Performance of this Dance, arising from Want of a just Notion of the Figure and some certain Rule in performing the Steps upon the said Figure, and more particularly those Steps which are designed by Way of Ornament or farther Grace, which instead of that often prove its Disgrace. Nothing is more common than to see the Gentleman or Lady detained in the Performance of some Step, in Order to illustrate the Dance; and so consequently not reaching that Part of the Room, on which the crossing is made, Time enough (c), instead of performing One and a Fleuret open off sideways to the right Hand (d), or some such like Step, or making a Feint off to the right Hand in the same Minuet Step quite round forwards falling into the Minuet Step of three Movements all behind facing the right or left Side, as it shall fall out, by which Time the former will be arrived at the Place of crossing which will then be in its due Time; whereas the running in either before or behind our Partner, as before, would have caused a Confusion.

This Disorder also frequently happens in performing the common Minuet Step, as when one of the Dancers does not fill out the Room and Figure in the Performance of an equal Number of Steps to the other; for, if this be not observed, it will produce the like Effect as the former; or if, as I have observed,in presenting the right Hand or giving of both, a sufficient Warning is not had by raising of the Hand or Hands, as aforesaid, one Minuet Step before the Hands are given  (), the Dancers are often nonplus'd and put out of the Figure, while on the contrary a Presence of Mind with the Observation of these Rules will prevent all such Blunders and Confusions.

There is yet one Observation more, with which I shall conclude what I have to say upon this Head, which may be of some Service in preventing the said Accidents, viz. The marking whether the Minuet Step of three Movements before and behind sideways to the left Hand, which introduces or leads to the giving the right Hand, was facing up or down the Room, because in going the Circle or Figure round to the right you certainly come to the same Place (e), whether it be facing to the upper or lower Part of the Room, ending the Division in the Minuet Step of One and a Fleuret obliquely off sideways to the right Hand and looking the same Way as described in that Step; and also the like in the Performance of the Minuet Steps round to the left, in which the said Hand is given (f).

As the foregoing are the principal Places, in which young Dancers usually mistake, I thought the making some Observations on the Occasion, and the Rules or Methods to be observed in preventing them, might not be unacceptable; for, admitting that Masters may have frequently taught their Scholars the same Lesson, yet according to the old Saying, Words soon pass into Oblivion, but what is put down in Print remains more strongly fix'd upon the Mind.

There is much more that might be said upon this Subject; but, as the aforesaid is sufficient, to avoid being tedious I shall only proceed to the making a few farther Observations, in Regard to the foregoing described Steps, which as yet have not been introduced into the Dance above explained nor any Place assigned them therein: For Instance, the March, Balance, Slip behind and Step forwards being to the right Hand, and the same to the left and a Double Bouree forwards, every one of which Steps, as was already observed, depend upon Fancy, as there are some Parts of the Dance much more proper than others, it may not be foreign to my present Purpose to take Notice of them; and in the first Place introduce the March, which seems to claim three Places in the said Dance, the Choice of which rests in the Performer, for it is to be observed that no Step of this Sort is ever performed more than once or twice in Dancing of a Minuet. For Example, should the said Dance be perform'd in one Assembly or Company twice or thrice over, its Steps ought to be varied as much as possible, that is, provided the Dancer is capable thereof; otherwise, as I have already observed, it is much better performed plain; but to what I was saying the two Marches will be agreeably made advancing upon the seventh Minuet Step of the second Division, the first of the three Ways there described, that is, of One and a Fleuret continuing all round forwards.

The eighth Minuet Step may be of One and a Fleuret open off sideways to the right Hand, as aforesaid, facing either to the upper or lower End of the Room, as it happens; the next Place it challenges is the second Measure of the fourth Division, instead of the Hop which is then left out; and the third is upon the last Step but one of the fifth Division or second S, intirely in the same Method described in the second Division.

The Balance is also frequently made much about the same Place or eighth Minuet Step, either sideways facing each other, or advancing and retiring; and the next is the Slip behind and Step forwards to the right and left Hands, each to a Minuet Step and Fall in their Performance upon the aforesaid second and fifth Divisions, only in the second of the three Methods explained in the second Part of the Dance, by breaking off the Minuet Step of One and a Fleuret upon the Ending of the sixth Minuet Step, instead of a seventh it makes the said Slip to the right Hand turning to each other from the contrary Sides of the Room, and the Slip to the left Hand is instead of the eighth Minuet Step.

This Step may also be performed with no small Advantage to the Dance, instead of the seventh and eighth Minuet Steps of the fourth Division which are there obliquely; and the Double Bouree forwards may be made upon the seventh Minuet Step of the second or fifth Divsion, concluding the eighth Minuet Step in One and a Fleuret to the right Hand, as aforesaid, or instead of the fifth Minuet Step, after which theremaining are as described in the second Division or S.

The third Way of this Step's Performance is by a half Turn upon the Half Coupee or Beginning of the sixth Minuet Step of One and a Fleuret, opening off sideways to the right, or in the sixth Division after the Hop instead of the Minuet Step.

The foregoing Graces or Steps being now united and brought into the aforesaid Dance, and having their proper Places assigned therein, I shall conclude with one Observation more, viz. that it is in its Performance longer or shorter, according to the Dancer's Pleasure. In Order to this instead of performing the second Division but once, as in the Dance before described presenting the right Hand, it may be performed twice or thrice, only it must be noted that the fifth Division upon breaking off the left Hand is performed the like Number of Times; that is to say if the second twice, the fifth the like, and if thrice the same after giving the single Hand; but the shortest Way is once, as described in the foregoing Dance.

The said Dance and its Steps, as I have already observed, altogether depend on Fancy, and are in their Performance various and uncertain; for it is left to the Pleasure of every one to perform them in the Order here set down, in any better Method of their own, or without any Steps. Indeed, it must be confessed that the Steps well performed in a Minuet are great Ornaments to that Dance, in filling it with Variety; yet at the same Time it must be owned the performing the plain Minuet Steps alone is extremely graceful, if well accomplished, and in Effect the most Gentleman-like, or at least the safer of the two.

(c) See the Gentleman and Lady in Plates VII, and XI.     (d) See the Gentleman and Lady in Plates VI, and VIII.

 See the Divisions or Chapters which treat of giving the Hands.     (e) See For Example the Gentleman and Lady in Plate VIII.     (f) See the Beginning in the Gentleman and Lady in Plate X, concluding in Plate VIII.

CHAP. XIII.
Of TIME or some Account of what TIME is, with Rules to be observed in Keeping it.

TIME is a large Space or Distance without Variation or Change; and, as it has been from the Beginning of all things, it will remain 'till a Period be put thereto and it ceases to be. This mighty Space the great Author thereof, in his exceeding Wisdom, has divided or measured into equal Parts and Proportions, as Days into Hours, Months into Weeks, Quarters into Months, Years into Quarters, &c. which Divisions or Parts move or travel round in a continual but just and regular Motion or Pace, succeeding each other without ceasing until they arrive at the utmost Limits or Confines of Time, which will then be no more.

But leaving these sublime Thoughts to draw more closely to the Point or Subject in Hand, I shall endeavour to illustrate it by one Day or Measure of the foregoing Space or Time, in supposing every Hour therein to be Bars or Measures of a Dance or Tune; and that they are as short in Length or Time, as Measure in common or triple Time. I shall likewise shew, that by one Hour may be comprehended the Scale both of common and triple Time: For Instance, the former thus.

COMMON TIME.
{1Semibreve. —{1Hour.
2Minims. —2Half Hours.
4Crotchets4Quarters of the Hour.
8Quavers8Half Quarters of the Hour.
16Semi-quavers. —16Half half Quarters of the Hour.

The above is the whole Proportion of Common Time or of four to the Measure, as usually found in Books of Music; yet we often find in Pieces of Music the sixteen Semi-quavers doubled two and thirty Demi-semi-quavers, and then the Hour will be divided into the like Number of Parts.

In Triple Time the Hour must be suppos'd to be divided into three Thirds or Parts, by Reason it only consists of three in a Bar or Measure: The Example is as follows.

TRIPLE TIME.
{1Prick'd Minim. —{1Hour in three Thirds.
3Crotchets. —3Thirds or Parts of the Hour.
6Quavers. —6Half Thirds or Parts of the Hour.
12Semi-quavers. —12Half half Thirds or Parts of the Hour.

This is the Proportion of Triple Time or three in a Measure, as usually put down; yet sometimes it amounts to twenty four Demi-semi-quavers

Having now shewn that the Hours of the Day may be esteem'd as so many Measures of a Tune or Dance, it must consequently be understood that a Day of twelve Hours contains the like Number of Measures; and, admitting that the Tune or Dance consisted of seventy two Bars, six Divisions or Days would compleat it. This Comparison may possibly be thought by some foreign to the Purpose, tho' it is indeed very just and suitable; and I question not but upon farther Consideration it will appear so to the judicious Reader, for since the Subject in Hand is Time and there is Nothing more certain than the Day and its Hours, the latter will of Course imprint in the Mind stronger and juster Ideas of the former.

However, it may perhaps be objected and at first View with great Show of Reason, that the Time in Dancing is various and liable to be changed to faster or slower, according to the Performer's Fancy; whereas the Day and Hours are immutable or without any Change. I answer, for this very Reason, as I have just observed it will give them a truer Notion of the Justness of Time, and be a Means to prevent their starting from or dragging behind it, which is often done by such whose Ears are pretty good, as well as by those who have very bad Ears, tho' it is the natural Fruit of the Want of an Ear which of all other Things is most difficult to cure, it being more a Gift of Nature than Art. This caused the Ancients to say, the Gods gave a Genius to Music and Dancing; and it is of that Importance in the latter as to render it impossible to please without Keeping Time, nor is it to be called Dancing without it.

From what has been said it appears, that to have a just and true Idea of Time is of no small Consequence in order to dance well, and that too much cannot be said upon this Head; which is, I think, a sufficient Motive for me to proceed in a few farther Observations upon it, which if duly consider'd, I am confident, will be found of remarkable Service.

In the first Place then, you are to take Notice, that of the foregoing Proportions of Time one is common and the other triple, from whence arise all the Times and Movements made use of in Dancing. From the former of these flow very slow Entrees containing two Steps in each Measure call'd, Quadruple or of two Times on Account of their Slowness or admitting of a suppos'd Bar in the Middle of the said Measure; but the rest as Allemaignes, Gavots, Galliards, Bourees, Rigadoons, &c. are only of one Time, as not allowing of more than one Step to a Measure by Reason they are much lighter Movements than the aforesaid Quadruple, of which they are esteem'd but as half a Measure. The latter consists of Louvres, or slow Jigs, Courants, Sarabands, Passacailles, Chaconnes, Minuets, Passepieds, &c. the first of which namely Louvres or slow Jigs are of two Times or Steps to a Measure and agreeable with Quadruple, so that in Effect there are three Sorts of Times in Dancing, viz. common, triple, and quadruple proceeding from the two former; yet they are all reckon'd but as common and triple Time and only beat as such, except that some are slower and others quicker, which is the Subject I am now about to explain.

Common Time, for, Instance, is of four Notes to the Bar or Measure, as has already been observed in the Explanation of the Steps upon that Time; and the Rise or Beginning of the Step, in Dancing, from a Sink always marks Time to the Tune, as well as the fourth or last Note is in the Sink or Preparative for the Rise or beating Time to the succeeding Step, which no sooner is perform'd than the Dancer proceeds to the next, as in Walking; and so on 'till the Dance is compleated, keeping a just and equal Distance or Space between every Beginning and Ending of a Measure of the Dance, as has been observed by the Hours of a Day, which is call'd Time, the same Way, as not making the Rise or marking of the Time, from a Sink upon the first Note which in all Measures is out of Time, and also performing the Steps of a Dance sometimes faster or slower than at others; but this is as morally impossible for one of a good Ear, as it wou'd be for a well timed Watch to go out of Time. Dancing may justly be consider'd as a Watch; for as, when the latter is set a going by the Springs, the Wheels move round measuring out the Hours or Divisions of a Day in certain and equal Spaces, during the Time it goes: So the Springs and Steps of a Dance ought to be continued after it is put in Motion by Music, 'till the Whole is ended, which may easily be accomplish'd. But the Difficulty arises here; for Example, supposing a Person, would set his Watch a going at Twelve at Noon, having no Rule nor any Thing to direct him in it but beholding of the Sun, is it not a Thousand to One but he wou'd be either before or after the Time? The Case is the very same in Dancing, as to those who have not a Genius or Ear to Music; and tho' I durst engage to make such a One acquire the former, namely to dance in just and regular Time, yet I wou'd not answer for his commencing upon the right Time by Reason, as I have observed in the Comparison of the Sun, it is a Point of a very nice Nature and in Reality not to be done with any Certainty, if the Ear is not first helped and improved by a Knowledge of that Science; no more than the former without a Skill in Dialling.

Having by the going of a Watch shewn the true and exact Time in which the Steps of a Dance ought to be perform'd, and the Difficulty of suiting the Movement of the Dance to that of the Tune, I shall proceed to give the Rules to be observed in beating or keeping Time to the foregoing Proportions of Time, which I take to be the first Step in the Affair under Consideration; and I shall begin with the Gavot, upon which Movement the Time is sometimes beat directly upon the first of the four Notes belonging to the Measure, but most usually after letting pass or slip half a Measure, that is to say, the third and fourth Notes. For the better Understanding of this I shall name two or three Dances of the latter Sort, viz. the Princess Royal compos'd by Mr. L'Abbee, the Princess Ann by Mr. Siris, and the Gavot to the Dance, named the Prince Eugene, of my own Composition, and they all begin with odd Notes to which in the Dance a plain Step or Walk is made, whilst the Person who beats Time raises the Heel or Toe on playing the odd Notes of the Tune, in Order to strike full upon the Time or first Note of the ensuing Measure; which is done in the Fall or Coming down of the Heel or Toe, either of which remains upon the Floor during the Counting of the first and second Notes or half Measure. While the third and fourth Notes, or concluding Half are counting the Heel or Toe is raised to mark Time to the succeeding Bar, as at first, and so on 'till the whole Tune or Dance is ended, keeping an exact and equal Motion up and down neither faster nor slower, and counting the said first, second, third, and fourth Notes successively over and over during the same; so that the Heel or Toe rises upon the third Note, remains in the Air the fourth, comes down to the first, and rests the second, &c. as before.

The Galliard Movement is intirely the same, as to the beating Part, but not as to the odd Notes, for instead of two, as in the foregoing, there is only one here; an Instance whereof we have in Mr. Isaac's Galliard, upon which the Heel or Toe is raised to beat the Time upon the first Note, as aforesaid. These two Movements are rather more solemn and grave than the following, namely, Allemaignes, Bourees, Rigadoons, &c. but with Regard to the Method of beating Time the very same, for they usually begin with an odd Note; and if not, 'tis only borrowing the last Note of the foregoing Measure for raising the Heel or Toe, as aforesaid.

It is here to be noted, that it can never be reckoned out of Time, whether the said four Notes of the Measure be counted faster or slower, provided they are continued through the Dance, as begun at first; for tho' the Fancy of Masters often differs upon this Point, yet every Movement has its proper Time.

From what has been said it fully appears, that the first Note or Beginning of a Bar is the Time or Mark the Dancer must hit; and in Order thereto, as the Performer in Music, in playing of the Tune, prepares for beating Time by taking up of the Toe or Heel, so does the Dancer in making a Sink or Bending of the Knees to beat or mark Time to the Tune, as well as to perform the first or introducing Step of the Dance; but whether it be done by a Rise upon the Toe, a Hop, or any other Step, it matters not, in that it is to be observed, the Rise from a Sink beats Time in Dancing, as the Fall of the Heel does in Music.

Before I proceed to triple Time, it will be necessary to say something farther of quadruple, which from its Graveness is reckoned as two Times, as was already observed; and I know no more proper or suitable Method of explaining it, since in Time and Value it is equivalent to two Measures of common Time, than the Counting every Note double as One One, Two Two, Three Three, Four Four, and supposing them, what in Effect they really are, four Minims, for in this Sort of Time the Crotchets are of equal Length to the Minims, and wou'd be as before observed, if the Time was beat in the Middle of the Measure. For Instance, on the commencing of the third Minim it is no longer quadruple but common Time; from whence it follows, that the Minims must be beat in their Timing, as one Measure, the same as the Crotchets, tho' in Length and Value double to them.

Tunes of quadruple Time rarely, if ever, begin with odd Notes, as the foregoing Tunes of common; and, for an Example, I shall name a Tune or two of this Kind, as the Entree d' Apolon. But as that Dance may not probably be known to such as this Book is principally design'd for, I shall name a second of the same Sort, namely the Godolphin, compos'd by the late Mr. Isaac, upon which may be practised the Time of this Movement; to which End the Heel is raised to mark the Time, as already explain'd, after which it remains on the Floor the playing of the first and second Minims or half Measure. The third and fourth Minims are in the two Motions the Heel or Toe makes in rising, in Order to mark the ensuing Measure: For Instance, the first Rise is made strong and brisk upon the Beginning of the latter half of the Measure or third Note; the second Rise is made farther up into the Air, in the same Manner as the first, to the fourth and last Note; upon the Expiration whereof the Toe or Heel comes down marking the Time to the next Bar, counting One One, Two Two, &c. as before, whilst the whole Tune is compleated.

Having shewn how the Dancer suits his Steps to the Notes of the Music, it will be of no Use to say any thing farther of that here; and therefore I shall only observe, that as there are in this Sort of Tunes two Steps to each Measure, the first is beat, as usual, down, but the second is marked up in the Air, on the Beginning of the third Minim, as above explained.

Being now arrived at triple Time or of three in a Measure, I have little to say, having already in the foregoing Proportions of Time described the Manner of beating or marking Time; for it is altogether superfluous and unnecessary to enlarge, since it is entirely in the same Method, except to make a few Observations touching the most material Difference in the Movements thereof; and first observe, that the Courante is a Sort of quadruple Movement which consists of three Minims, instead of the like Number of Crotchets, as in the rest following; which Minims are usually divided into double the Quantity of prick'd Crotchets and Quavers, mix'd or blended promiscuously together, according to the Composer's Fancy, producing this Movement and play'd as three Minims, which renders it very solemn and grave; and, in its counting or beating in Time it is the same as the foregoing quadruple, only it is a Minim less and generally begins with an odd Quaver or half Note. Upon this the Heel or Toe is raised, as aforesaid, to mark the Time of first Note in the Coming down of the Toe or Heel, counting One One, Two Two, during which, two Thirds of the Measure the Foot rests upon the Ground. In the third and remaining Minim or Part the Heel or Toe is raised in Readiness to mark the Measure following, which is perform'd successively on, in like Manner, keeping just and regular Time, &c. as was shewn before; but, for an Example, I shall name the La Burgogne by Mr. Pecour and Brawl of Audenarde by Mr. Siris.

The next grave Movements are Sarabands, Passacailles, and Chaconnes, each of three Crotchets to a Measure, and every one a Degree lighter than the other: Nevertheless the Method of beating Time is the same as described above in the Courante Movement, only instead of Minims to Crotchets and of the Time's commencing after an odd Note, it is mark'd directly as in quadruple; that is to say, excepting Chaconnes, which always begin with odd Notes. Examples of the two former Sorts are the Princess Ann, the Follie D'Espaigne, and Passacaille D'armid, all which Dances were compos'd by Mr. L'Abbee; and also of the latter the Princess Ann's Chaconne by the same Author is an Instance, where a whole Measure is let slip before the Time commences.

The next Minuets and Passepieds are still brisker, the first being of three Crotchets to a Bar or Measure, and the second of three Quavers; and the first usually begins without odd Notes, but the second never. The Time of these Movements, in Dancing, ought never to be beat after every Bar but every other Measure, by Reason, as has been said, one Minuet Step takes two Measures of these Movements; and it is to be noted that, as in quadruple, the Time is to be mark'd the first Measure down, and second up, instead of twice down. It must be farther observed that if the Strains of the Minuet or Passepied consist of eight, as they most frequently do, four Minuet Steps are equivalent to a Strain once over; from whence it follows, that the Beginning of a Strain, whether the first or second it matters not, is always the Time the Dancer is to mark or hit, and from thence to proceed on from one second Bar to another upon the Time, neither varying to faster nor slower, than at first setting out, during the Performance of the whole Dance; and if the Minuet or Passepied is of more Measures, it is nevertheless performed in the same Manner. There is Plenty of Examples of the former Kind, as is of the latter the Royal George, that is, the Conclusion and Beginning of the Bretagne; the first by Mr. L'Abbee, the second by Mr. Pecour, to which I shall add one more of my own Composition, namely, the Passepied Round.

As to Tunes of triple Time agreeing with quadruple, viz. Louvres or slow Jigs, they are of two Measures, or of six Crotchets in the Bar, the first three whereof are beat down and the remaining up, each answering to a Measure of a Saraband, and a Movement usually beginning in odd Notes. For Instance, the Entree Espagnol and Pastoral Dance, the latter by the late Mr. Isaac; and the Union by the same Author is of this Nature, tho' it does not begin with odd Notes as the Dances aforesaid. As the foregoing Discourse shews that Louvres or slow Jigs are agreeable to quadruple Time, I shall next proceed to observe, that Jigs and airy light Tunes of the like Number of Notes to the Measures, as the aforesaid, agree with Rigadoons in common Time, and beat as such in marking the first three down, and the remaining up; as for Example, in Jigs or Forlanes, the Princess Amelia compos'd by Mr. L'Abbee, and the Dance of that Movement by Mr. Pecour; and the Shepherdess compos'd by my self is likewise an Example of this Sort.

There is yet another Movement that occurs to my Memory, namely, the Canary, which is of a very brisk Nature, consisting only of three or fix Quavers in a Measure, but usually the latter, slipping before the Time is beat three Quavers or half a Measure, and marking the three first down and the rest up; and the last Movement of the Royal Galliard by the late Mr. Isaac is an Example of this Kind.

There is still a Movement unobserved, of the like Quantity of Notes to a Measure, viz. the Hornpipe, which is of three Minims or six Crotchets in the Bar, and, in marking or beating Time, agrees with a Tune of triple Time or of three, as for Instance a Saraband, in which the Foot remains down, during the counting of One, Two, and upon the third rises to mark the ensuing Measure &c. The second Parts of the Union and Richmond are both Dances of a Hornpipe Movement, and of the late Mr Isaac's Composition.

Besides the foregoing Rules of beating Time it may be of Service to such as have but indifferent Ears, when they are about to dance in any Assembly or private Room, or in their Dancing, to hearken to the Tune, that they may know the Time in which the Dance is to be perform'd; which they may more easily do by Reason the Music rarely fail of beating Time to the Tune they are playing, or at least ought not, because hearing the beating or striking of the Toe or Heel against the Floor are visible and certain Marks of the Dancers commencing.

Moreover in Dancing, if the Partner with whom we dance be a good Performer, we should take Care to keep our Steps and Figure agreeable with theirs; and I am of Opinion, if a Person has the least Notion of the Steps he is performing, it will be very easy for him to observe, whether they begin and end together, which I believe may be useful in Dancing.

However, as I have said before, the most sure Method I take to be, listening to the Music and Time beat thereto, tho 'that itself is uncertain, nothing being more common than the hearing of a Tune begun in one Time, and, before it is ended, to be near as fast again; which renders it impossible for the best Dancers whatsoever to dance as they ought, for instead of their finding the Note upon which they should step, it is push'd or drove from under their Feet during every Step they take, and of Consequence causes them to lose that natural and careless Air so agreeable in Dancing, notwithstanding they keep up with the Tune, as being never certain of its Time. Indeed, it must be own'd to be the Dancer's Business to dance to the Tune; yet it is nevertheless the Music's Part to beat and keep constant and true Time, as well at the latter Part of a Tune as at first. By this Means the Dancers, sure of the Time they dance to, perform not only with Pleasure and Ease to themselves, but also give a double Satisfaction to the Spectators in beholding the Dancers; for altho' the latter are at a considerable Distance from each other, yet the former will observe, that every Movement or Sink and Rise the Dancers make is exactly the same in one as well as the other; the former in Order to mark Time, and the latter in marking of it. Moreover every Turn, Step, Spring or Bound seen in one will be at the same Instant observed in the other, in such an exact Symmetry and Harmony of the Parts agreeing with the Notes of the Music, as to cause the most agreeable Surprize in the Beholders of the two Dancers; or admitting a Dozen or more in Number, by observing them all to move as only one Person. This is the natural Effect of good Dancing adorn'd with all its Beauties, in that the Music seems to inspire the Dancing, and the latter the former; and the Concurrence of both is so requisite to charm those who behold them, that each of them in some Measure suffers by a Separation. For Example the Eye can receive no Pleasure in the Music any more than the Ear in Dancing; but in Conjunction there is at once an Attack upon both these Senses.

Tho' this is only an imperfect Draught of fine Dancing, yet it may serve to shew how frequently this Art suffers by the Unskilfulness of its Performers, whether it arise from the Want of a true Knowledge of the Steps, a bad Ear, or from any other Cause; and this it was that gave Birth to my Treatise on Dancing, in which the principal and most remarkable Steps in that Art are described and taken in Pieces. I have also shewn how the Step sof each Measure are made to common or triple Time; and in the Minuet I have given an Explanation of all the Steps of that Dance; and shewn, tho' in Effect it is not so, how it may be reduced into a regular Dance. In discoursing upon Time, I have given Examples in the most known Tunes of every Movement, upon which it may be practised or beaten; and in the Rules for the same I have fully made appear, how the Steps of the foregoing Discourse, altho' in Pieces, are there united and set together again, moving in just Time to the Sound of Music, as the Watch is put in Motion by its Springs. Upon taking some farther Notice of the Elevation, Movement, and graceful Fall of the Arms, together with some Observations concerning Country Dancing, I shall conclude this Work, in Hopes that, as the chief, nay only Motive of undertaking it was the Publick Good, it may answer the desired End; the accomplishing whereof will be a sufficient Recompence for the great Pains, Trouble, and Expence I have been at in compleating the same; and, as there never hitherto appeared in the World, at least in our Language, a Piece of this Nature, I flatter my self it will meet with the more Acceptance.

CHAP. XIV.
Of the Movement of the ARMS in DANCING.

HAVING shewn the Method in which the different Steps are to be taken and perform'd, I shall now proceed to shew how the Movements of the Arms ought to accompany the said Steps in Dancing; left this Work should be compared to the Legs and Body of a Man without Arms.

However as on the one Hand, I shall make it my Study to omit Nothing that can contribute to compleat this Work, I shall at the same Time, on the other, only observe what I apprehend to be material, without tiring the Reader's Patience on a Subject which cannot be compleated without the very best Masters. The Correspondence of the Legs and Arms in Dancing is a Point of so nice a Nature that any Awkwardness or improper Movements therein would destroy the Beauty of the whole, since that Dancing cannot be good which is decrepid or lame in any of its Parts, any more than a Gentleman or Lady can be justly esteem'd compleatly genteel who are naturally and easily disposed in some Parts and disagreeable in others; so that in fine it is the very Polish and finishing Stroke.

For the better comprehending of this we must first take Notice that, in whatsoever Position we stand before the Elevation or Raising of the Arms, the Palms or Insides of the Hands are to our Side in a genteel easy Shape or Fashion, the whole Arms hanging from under the Shoulders without Force downwards, or too much Relaxation upwards, but natural and easy in a Readiness for the Elevation .

The next Observation relates to the Position of the Hands after their Elevation or being raised; and we should find them with the Palms of the Hands to the Presence or right forwards with the Arms both open or extended, in the like Manner we have described them by the Sides, neither too much raised nor too much sunk beneath the Shoulders, but graceful and easy, and being so disposed ready to perform the first Motion, which in the Movement of the Arms above corresponds with the Sink or Bending of the Knees below . This is done by moving or raising the whole Arms; and, in the Fall of the said Arms to their first Situation after their Elevation, the Palms of the Hands, instead of right forwards as before, are now to the Floor; which is effected by a slow and easy Turning of the said Wrists during the Motion of the said Arms downwards compleating the Movement or Motion of the Arms, from whence all other Movements take their Rise or Beginning; so that, if the graceful Raising or Elevation of the Arms from the Sides to the Palms right forwards be by a slow and even Raising of the Wrists, turning outwards or backwards 'till they arrive at their proper Height as before described , their becoming Fall must in like Manner * be in the Turn of the Wrists and Palms of the Hands downwards in a slow and even Motion inwards, or forwards, whilst the Palms are to the Sides, as at firs2, greatly resembling the Fall of a Feather or the Coming down of a Bird, their Fall is so smooth and easy; and it is a wonderful Grace to Dancing when well performed.

To avoid being tedious or overloading this Subject with too many Observations I shall reduce the various Movements of the Arms to three or four, viz. first, the Movement of the Wrists from the Elbows round upwards (a). Secondly, the Movement of the Arms inwards in their Motion upwards (b). Thirdly, the compleating the said Movement of the Arms inwards by the Movement of the Wrists round upwards mentioned before (a). And fourthly, the irregular or contrary Movement (c).

Now, as to the Method of Performance and Timing of the Movement of the Wrists round upwards, it is by a slow and even Motion or Movement of the Knuckles or Forefingers and Thumbs upwards round from a small Bend of the Wrists and Elbows corresponding therewith (b). The Commencing is upon one, the Movement round backwards (b) finishing in a Flirt or careless Motion of the Wrists and Arms in their Return to their former Situation, as in the Position of the Arms after their Elevation; upon two (a) and three if to triple Time, in the Motion or Preparative for the Movement of the Arms next ensuing, as it will conclude in like Manner upon four, if to common Time.

The next Movement is made by the easy Fall of the Elbows at the same Time or Instant; and the Knuckles or Forefingers and Thumbs lead the Way in a smooth and easy Motion from below upwards forming a quarter or half Circle or Bow 2 The Hands in a handsome Fashion may be supposed the Ends or Points of the said half Circle or Bow; and it is to be noted that this Movement is only about the one Half of the aforesaid. But as that begun by forming the Circle round upwards above the Position of the Arms, the Elbows during the Movement of the Wrists remaining elevated until the Flirt or Finishing is made, on the other Hand in this Movement of the Arms the half Circle, or Motion the Wrists make, is below the Position of the Arms; and, instead of the Elbows remaining elevated, as before, together with the whole Arms, they fall or sink down in a slow, smooth, and easy Motion, whilst the Forefingers and Thumbs, as aforesaid, at the same Time move upwards in the like slow and deliberate Manner, finishing together with the Hands above and the Elbows below in Order to the throwing the Arms open off again, as in Hops, Chassees, and the like, for which these are the proper Arms. The bringing them in on the Conclusion of the foregoing Step, as just described ||, is in Order to the said throwing them out on the Time or Beginning of the next Step 3 for which this is the Preparative, tho' the Movement of the Arms to the Palms of the Hands downwards must always be first made by Way of farther Preparation, concluding open and extended, 'till the Measure is expired; and from hence it appears, that these two Movements usually answer each separately to a Measure or Step, forming together much about a whole Circle. The former Half, as I have said, moves under the Position of the Arms, and the latter Half above in the Movement of the Arms round upwards in the Form and Manner above described; and these are the second and third Movements I proposed to explain.

The irregular or fourth and last Movement is produced from the two former, viz, by the Fall of the Elbow of one Hand as the Knuckle moves upwards, whilst the other at the same Time performs the Motion of the Arm round upwards; which compose a fine Contrast, concluding both at the same Time (d) with one Hand bended and the other extended (d). This beautiful contrasted Movement changes, every Step alternately, first one Hand and then the other, and is the proper Movement of the Arms in Half Coupees, Marches, Bourees, and the like; only it must be observed that the bended Arm is the contrary Arm to the beginning Foot in any of the Steps (e) aforesaid, excepting backwards or sideways, because then the Opposition or Contrast is between the same Hand and Foot, as was already shewn in treating of Walking (f). The Movement of the Arms round upwards 4 is made use of in Pirouttes, Bourees with a Bound, and all such like Steps.

Altho' there are various other Methods or Manners of moving the Arms in Dancing, yet as these, like the five Positions with Regard to the Feet, are as it were the principal, it is needless (nor indeed is it agreeable to my present Design) to enlarge, especially on a Subject which, as I have already said, cannot be sufficiently described by Words but must be compleated by the very best Masters; and therefore to avoid Trifling, as I have described and given some Hints of the Method or Manner of moving the Arms which will agree with all the Steps made Use of in genteel Dancing, I shall refer the rest to the personal Instructions of a Master properly qualified, who must compleat what is here wanting, not only in Relation to the Movements of the Arms but also those of the Feet between which there is, as I have already observed, a perfect Connexion and Harmony. The Fingers and Toes, Wrists and Ancles, Elbows and Knees, Shoulders and Hips, in Dancing must move all of a Piece; and in fine the Compleating of this is the End I had chiefly in View in composing this Work.

 See the Figures in Plate I, B. I.      See Plates II and XV in B. I.

* See the Plates XV, and II, B. I.     2 See the Figures in Plate I, B. I.     (a) See Plate XV, B. I.     (b) See Plate X, B. I.     (c) See Plates IV, V, VI, IX, XII, XIII, XIV. B. I.     2 See the Figures in Plates X, and XI, B. I.

|| See the Figures in Plates X and XI, B. I.     3 See Plate XV, B. I.     (d) See Plates IV, V, VI, IX, XII, XIII, XIV. B. I.

(e) See Plates IV, VI, IX, XII, XIV, B. I.     (f) See Plate XIII, B. I.     4 See Plate XV, B. I.

CHAP. XV.
Of COUNTRY DANCING.

THO' my original Design was only to have spoke of genteel Dancing, yet as Country Dances are at all Assemblies or Balls introduced as it were a Part of or belonging to the former, (and indeed I think it may very properly be esteem'd as a luxuriant or careless Branch growing out from the other) and is become as it were the Darling or favourite Diversion of all Ranks of People from the Court to the Cottage in their different Manners of Dancing, and as the Beauty of this agreeable Exercise (I mean when perform'd in the genteel Character) is very much eclipsed and destroyed by certain Faults, or Omissions, in the Performers not hitherto, if I remember right, taken Notice of in any Books; I shall, at the Request of some Persons of Figure my Subscribers, endeavour to point out those Neglects which render this Diversion, to fine Dancers, either altogether disagreeable, or much less pleasant, because one or two Couples either through Carelesness, or Want of better Instructions, will put the whole Set in Disorder.

This will always be occasioned by the Couples below those who lead up the Dance, when they omit moving up into the first Couple's Places, on their casting off, and down again in their casting up to their Places as at first; or the like, if the first or leading Couples cross over and figure in. In a Word, whenever the leading Couples move downwards, the Couples coming up to lead the Dance should move upwards and, when they move up again, the Couples who do not lead the Dance ought to move down again, attending the Motion of the Dancers going down with the Dance, who in Return will attend them in like Manner, when they arrive at the upper End to dance in their Turns. The nice Observation of this presents to the Beholders an agreeable Prospect of the whole Company in Motion at once, instead of the Confusion that happens when this is neglected; as when in giving the right Hand and left in going round downwards from above, or upwards from below, instead of continuing on and giving first the right and then the left Hand to those you meet, you turn back, or if in Conversation with your Partner, or otherwise, you be not attentive and ready to begin at the Conclusion of any Part or Division of the Dance; which frequently falls out for, when the coming up Couples have concluded the Dance with those going down, they often forget that they are immediately to begin again with the next above them, and so for Want of Attention breed Confusion and at the same Time expose themselves to the Spectators.

Indeed good Breeding, in Regard to those with whom we dance, requires our not being careless; and yet my fair Readers and others I hope will excuse me, if I tell them I fear this is too often the Case, since with due Circumspection and Care it is impossible not to follow almost any Country Dance, tho' I must own when I was a Youth I thought it Conjuration. If we place ourselves at the Bottom, and, instead of Talking, take a Survey of the Dance, whatever it is in its Performance, over and over again, first with one Couple and then with another, it is impossible, I say, but we must be able to go down with it, when it comes to our Turns, as well as avoid Disorders in our gradual Ascent to the upper End; it being only to observe and distinguish one from another the Things of of which the different Parts of all Dances whatsoever are composed whether Casting off or up, Figuring in, Hands across or round, Right Hand and Left, Flying, Pursuing, Clapping of Hands, Heys, Leading up or down, Back to Back, Changing of Places, Falling back, Meeting again, or whatever it be, by dividing one Part of the above Catalogue from the other. And with a little Practice you will soon be able not only to follow Country Dances but also lead them up, tho' you never danced them before: For Instance, if a Gentleman or Lady at the upper End propose a Dance to their Partner unknown to one of them, you need only ask how it begins, and they will acquaint you, and whether it be Falling Back, Meeting again, Crossing over, or whatsoever else, you will readily perform it. For this Reason I would advise all young People and others who are not perfect in Right Hand and left, Figuring in, Heys, and the like, before they attempt to dance in Public, to make themselves well acquainted with and able to perform all the different Parts or Divisions of Country Dancing; which they may privately learn amongst one another, if they don't care to practise in Public, and thereby not only render this Diversion more agreeable to themselves, but also more pleasing to those who accompany them in this Exercise.

Besides as I have before hinted, instead of giving a confused Idea to the Beholders it will afford an agreeable Landscape or Prospect of so many Pairs of fine Gentlemen and Ladies gracefully in Motion to the Sound of Music, and compleating each Part of the Dance in Time to the Measure, or Strains of the Tune, as it were of one Accord: As of even Rows longwise when falling back and meeting again; half Circles, when casting off or up again; Figures of Eight or Binding of a Hedge, as in Figuring in, or the Heys; irregular Figures, whenone flies and the other pursues; round Circles, when Hands are joined; cross Figures, when the right or left Hands are joined moving round; Beating Time in Contrast, as when Hands are clapped first in Time with their own, and next crosswise with their right Hand against their Partner's, or others again clap their own Hands, and afterwards strike the left in Contrast; Leading crosswise in Rows, in Order of marching up the Room and the like down, with various other beautiful Circles and Figures. If a fine Picture, beautiful Fields, crystal Streams, green Trees, and imbroider'd Meadows in Landscape or Nature itself will afford such delightful Prospects, how much more must so many well shap'd Gentlemen and Ladies, richly dress'd, in the exact Performance of this Exercise, please the Beholders, who entertain them with such a Variety of living Prospects.

Having in the above Sketch or Draught attempted to raise some noble Ideas of Country Dancing, when performed in a proper Manner, and in the foregoing Instructions pointed out and removed all the most material Faults and Omissions in the Performance of this Branch of our Art, which either obstruct the Pleasure of the Dancers, or Beholders, I think I have finished what I designed, viz. the Improvement and Pleasure of others. I shall therefore conclude this Work, not in the least questioning but my good Intentions will meet with a favourable Reception from the Public, especially from those who receive Benefit or Profit thereby.

FINIS.


THESE are to certify, that the foregoing or Second Part of the Work entitled, the ART OF DANCING EXPLAIN'D, was designed and composed long before the Treatise entitled, the DANCING MASTER, appeared as we believe and that, having carefully perused and examined the same, we found that, on the twenty seventh Day of January, 1727-8, it was written in its present Form.

Witness our Hands,
ALEX. JACKSON,
JOSEPH JACKSON,
}Dancing-Masters.